Experiment 1 (with compensation)
To investigate the effects of framing on need satisfaction, motivation, and affective response when failing in an activity, an online experiment with a mixed design was implemented. The between-subjects variable was type of framing (task vs. game vs. test vs. task with meaning) and the within-subjects variable was time (pre and post experiment). The dependent motivational and affective variables were measured before and after the experiment. Participants were recruited on a crowdsourcing platform and paid 65 US cents for completion of the study.
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