Decentralized control of residential hybrid heating systems for supply of control power under consideration of local voltage levels
In Germany renewable energies already represent a share of about 30 % with regard to the domestic gross electricity consumption. And this contribution will most likely – according to the goals of the German government – significantly further increase in the years to come . For an efficient integration of this electricity from renewable sources of energy – especially with a fluctuating characteristic – and for an ongoing secure and reliable electricity provision system, the flexibility of the overall power system has to be increased. One possibility promising a large potential at low costs is to couple the power sector with the heat sector via implementing heating cartridges in hot water storage systems, which are typically an integrated component of existing gas or oil driven heating systems used by private households as well as small-scale industry . Such hybrid heating systems can consume excess electricity from the electricity provision system or stabilize the power system by means of supplying negative control power. For such applications this paper presents decentralized control approaches to coordinate the supply of control power from a multitude of such distributed hybrid heating systems. Compared with most of the existing control approaches, the decentralized control mechanisms developed within this paper also take voltage violations within the distribution grid into account. All analyses and evaluations are based on comprehensive computer simulations with NetLogo and Matpower, a Matlab based tool for power flow calculations.
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