Previous research has mainly considered the extent to which a European public sphere has developed by analysing reporting on EU news and EU actors in the media of EU member states. Overall, these studies have been rather elite driven in a twofold way: a) by being predominantly focused on quality media (and broadsheets in particular) and b) by nearly exclusively taking into account the presence of national and EU level governmental actors (see, e.g., Boomgaarden et al. 2013; Brüggemann and Kleinen-von Königslöw 2009; de Vreese 2004). The visibility of EU citizen has been neglected in the European public sphere research.
KeywordsPublic Sphere Governmental Actor Elitist Institution Member State Level Informed Vote
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