The idea to use ionizing radiation for cancer treatment is much older than commonly thought. In 1896, few months after Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen published his discovery of a new kind of rays [Röntgen, 1896], L. Freund and E. Schiff suggested to use these rays in the treatment of disease [MacKee, 1921]. From this, biologists and physicians started to investigate the biological effects of ionizing radiation. Physicists developed methods to increase the energy of the x-rays and highly sophisticated delivery techniques. Modern delivery techniques, namely Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) helped to tremendously reduce the dose delivered to healthy tissue and thus reduce side effects of radiotherapy.
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