Skip to main content

Global patterns of domestic cannabis cultivation: sample characteristics and patterns of growing across eleven countries

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Friendly Business

Abstract

Aims: To provide an overview of: demographic characteristics; experiences with growing cannabis; methods and scale of growing operations; reasons for growing; personal use of cannabis and other drugs; participation in cannabis and other drug markets; contacts with the criminal justice system for respondents to an online survey about cannabis cultivation drawn from eleven countries (N=6530). Important similarities and differences between the national samples recruited will be discussed.

Method: This paper utilizes data from the online web survey of predominantly ‘small-scale’ cannabis cultivators in eleven countries conducted by the Global Cannabis Cultivation Research Consortium (GCCRC). Here we focus primarily on descriptive statistics to highlight key similarities and differences across the different national samples.

Findings: Overall there was a great deal of similarity across countries in terms of: demographic characteristics; experiences with growing cannabis; methods and scale of growing operations; reasons for growing; use of cannabis and other drugs; participation in cannabis and other drug markets, and contacts with the criminal justice system. In particular, we can recognise that a clear majority of those small-scale cannabis cultivators who responded to our survey is primarily motivated for reasons other than making money from cannabis supply and have minimal involvement in drug dealing or other criminal activities. These growers generally come from ‘normal’ rather than ‘deviant’ backgrounds. Some differences do exist between the samples drawn from different countries suggesting that local factors (political, geographical, cultural etc.) may have some influence on how small-scale cultivators operate, although differences in recruitment strategies in different countries may also account for some differences observed.

Reprinted from The International Journal of Drug Policy, Vol. 26, no. 3 (March 2015), pp. 226-237, Copyright 2015, with kind permission from Elsevier. Minor formal changes have been made regarding (cross) references.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

eBook
USD 16.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 16.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  • Barratt, M.J. & Lenton, S. (2015): Representativeness of online purposive sampling with Australian cannabis cultivators. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26 (3): 323-326.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barratt, M.J., Bouchard, M., Decorte, T., Asmussen F.V., Hakkarainen, P., Lenton, S., Malm, A., Nguyen, H. & Potter, G. (2012): Understanding global patterns of domestic cannabis cultivation. Drugs and Alcohol Today, 12(4): 213-221.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barratt, M.J., Potter, G., Wouters, M., Wilkins, C., Werse, B., Perälä, J., Mulbjerg Pederson M., Nguyen H., Malm A., Lenton S., Korf, D., Klein A., Heyde J., Hakkarainen P., Frank V.A., Decorte T., Bouchard M. & Blok T. (2015): Lessons from conducting trans-national internet-mediated participatory research with hidden populations of cannabis cultivators. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26 (3): 238-249.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bouchard, M. (2007): A capture-recapture model to estimate the size of criminal populations and the risks of detection in a marijuana cultivation industry. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 23, (3) 221-241.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bouchard, M., Alain, M. & Nguyen, H. (2009): Convenient labour: the prevalence and nature of youth involvement in the cannabis cultivation industry. International Journal of Drug Policy, 20 (6): 467-474.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bouchard, M., Potter, G. & Decorte, T. (2011): Emerging Trends in Cannabis Cultivation – and the Way Forward. In: T. Decorte T, G. Potter, M. Bouchard (eds.): World Wide Weed: global trends in cannabis cultivation and its control. Ashgate: Aldershot.

    Google Scholar 

  • Coomber, R. (2006): Pusher myths: Re-situating the drug dealer. London: Free Association Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Decorte, T. (2010): Small scale domestic cannabis cultivation: an anonymous web survey among 659 cultivators in Belgium. Contemporary Drug Problems, 37 (2): 341-370.

    Google Scholar 

  • Decorte, T., Potter, G. & Bouchard, M. (2011): World Wide Weed: global trends in cannabis cultivation and control. Ashgate: Aldershot.

    Google Scholar 

  • Decorte, T., Barratt, M.J., Nguyen, H., Bouchard, M., Malm, A. & Lenton, S. (2012): International Cannabis Cultivation Questionnaire (ICCQ) (Version 1.1). Global Cannabis Cultivation Research Consortium, Belgium.

    Google Scholar 

  • Douglas, J. & Sullivan, R. (2013): The role of child protection in cannabis grow-operations. International Journal of Drug Policy, 24 (5): 445-448.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frank, V.A., Christense, A.S., Villumsen, S. & Dahl, H.V. (2011): Cannabis dyrkning i Danmark [Cannabis growing in Denmark]. In: V.A. Frank, H.V. Dahl (eds.): Cannabis- Forbrug, interventioner og marked i Danmark [Cannabis – Consumption, interventions and markets in Denmark]. Aarhus: Aarhsu University Press, 147-171.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hakkarainen, P., Frank V.A., Barratt, M.J., Dahl, H.V., Decorte, T., Karjalainen, K., Lenton, S., Potter, G., Werse B. (2015): Growing medicine: Small-scale cannabis cultivation for medicalpurposes in six different countries. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26 (3): 250-256.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hakkarainen, P., Frank, V.A., Perälä, J. & Dahl, H.V. (2011a): Small-scale cannabis growers in Denmark and Finland. European Addiction Research, 17 (3): 119–128.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hakkarainen, P., Perälä, J. & Metso, L. (2011b): Kukkaa pukkaa – Kannabiksen kotikasvatus Suomessa [Bud, bud, bud – Home growing of cannabis in Finland]. Yhteiskuntapolitiikka, 76 (2): 148–168.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hammersvik, E., Sandberg, S. & Pedersen, W. (2012): Why small-scale cannabis growers stay small: Five mechanisms that prevent small-scale growers from going large scale. International Journal of Drug Policy, 23 (6): 458-464.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hardie-Bick, J., Sheptycki, J. & Wardak, A. (2005): Transnational and Comparative Criminology in a Global Perspective. In: J. Sheptycki, A. Wardak (eds.): Transnational and Comparative Criminology. London: GlassHouse Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Heidensohn, F. (2008): International Comparative Research in Criminology. In: R.D. King, E. Wincup (eds.): Doing Research on Crime and Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hough, M., Warburton, H., Few, B., May, T., Man, L-H., Witton, J. & Turnbull, P.J. (2003): A growing market: The domestic cultivation of cannabis. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  • INCB (2013): The use of cannabis seeds for illicit cultivation: report of secretariat Commission on Narcotic Drugs, 56th session, Vienna 11-15 March 2013.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jansen, A. (2002): The economics of cannabis-cultivation in Europe. Paper presented at the 2nd European Conference on Drug Trafficking and Law Enforcement. Paris, 26th and 27th September, 2002. Available at http://www.cedro-uva.org/lib/jansen.economics.html. [accessed: 15th April 2014].

  • Lenton, S. (2011): Changing cannabis laws to facilitate a shift to domestic cannabis production as a harm reduction strategy – a case study. In: T. Decorte, G. Potter, M. Bouchard (eds.): World Wide Weed: the globalisation and localisation of cannabis cultivation. Farnham: Ashgate.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lenton, S., Frank, V.A., Barratt, M., Dahl, H.V. & Potter, G. (2015): Attitudes of cannabis growers to regulation of cannabis cultivation under a non-prohibition cannabis model. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26 (3): 257-266.

    Google Scholar 

  • Malm, A. (2006): Marihuana Cultivation in British Columbia: Utilizing spatial and social network analysis to inform evidence-based policy and planning. Unpublished PhD. Dissertation. Simon Fraser University.

    Google Scholar 

  • Matza, D. (1964): Delinquency and Drift. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nguyen, H. & Bouchard, M. (2010): Patterns of youth participation in cannabis cultivation. Journal of Drug Issues, 40 (2): 263–294.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nguyen, H., Malm, A. & Bouchard, M. (2015): Production, perceptions, and punishment: Restrictive deterrence in the context of cannabis cultivation. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26 (3): 267-276.

    Google Scholar 

  • Niesink, R. & Rigter, S. (2013): THC-concentraties in wiet, nederwiet en hasj in Nederlandse coffeeshops [THC concentrations in weed, nederweed and hash in Dutch coffeeshops]. Utrecht: Trimbos Instituut.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paoli, L. & Decorte, T. (2015): Assessing the harms of cannabis cultivation in Belgium. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26 (3): 277-289.

    Google Scholar 

  • Plecas, D., Malm, A.E. & Kinney, B. (2005): Marihuana Grow Operations Revisited: 1997-2003. Ottawa, Canada: Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

    Google Scholar 

  • Potter, G.R. (2010a): Weed, Need and Greed: a study of domestic cannabis cultivation. Free Association Books: London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Potter, G.R. (2010b): You Reap What You Sow: the profit, pleasure and pain in domestic cannabis cultivation. In: T. Decorte, J. Fountain (eds.): Pleasure, pain and profit. European perspectives on drugs. Pabst: Lengerich.

    Google Scholar 

  • Potter, G.R. & Dann, S. (2005): Urban Crop Circles: Urban Cannabis Growers in the North of England. In: W. Palacios (ed.): Cocktails and Dreams: Perspectives on Drug and Alcohol Use. Pearson Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

    Google Scholar 

  • Potter, G., Bouchard, M. & Decorte, T. (2011): The Globalization of Cannabis Cultivation. In: T. Decorte, G.R. Potter, M. Bouchard (eds.): World Wide Weed: global trends in cannabis cultivation and its control. Ashgate: Aldershot.

    Google Scholar 

  • Room, R. (2014): Legalising a market for cannabis for pleasure: Colorado, Washington, Uruguay and beyond. Addiction 109(3): 345-351.

    Google Scholar 

  • Room, R., Fischer, B., Hall, W., Lenton, S., & Reuter, P. (2010): Cannabis Policy: Moving Beyond Stalemate. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Straus, M.A. (2009): The national context effect. Cross-Cultural Research, 43 (3): 183–205.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sykes, G. & Matza, D. (1957): Techniques of neutralization: A theory of delinquency. American Sociological Review, 22 (6): 664-670.

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, M. & Potter, G. (2013): Drug dealers and friendship networks: Drift, friendship and trust in drug dealing careers. Journal of Drug Issues, 43(4): 392-406.

    Google Scholar 

  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2008): 2008 World Drug Report. Vienna: United Nations.

    Google Scholar 

  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2013): 2013 World Drug Report. Vienna: United Nations.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weisheit, R.A. (1991): The intangible rewards from crime: the case of domestic marijuana cultivation. Crime and Delinquency, 37 (4): 506–527.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weisheit, R.A. (1992): Domestic Marijuana: A Neglected Industry. New York: Greenwood Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Werse, B. (2015): Legal issues for German-speaking cannabis growers. Results from an online survey. International Journal of Drug Policy, November 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.10.007

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gary R. Potter .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2016 Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Potter, G.R. et al. (2016). Global patterns of domestic cannabis cultivation: sample characteristics and patterns of growing across eleven countries. In: Werse, B., Bernard, C. (eds) Friendly Business. Springer VS, Wiesbaden. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-10329-3_9

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-10329-3_9

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer VS, Wiesbaden

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-658-10328-6

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-658-10329-3

  • eBook Packages: Law and CriminologyLaw and Criminology (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics