Collaboration infrastructures dealing with the concept of emergence face many challenges. The latter term was introduced by the philosopher George Henry Lewes (1875), who wrote:
“Every resultant is either a sum or a difference of the co-operant forces […]. It is otherwise with emergent. […] The emergent is unlike its components insofar as these are incommensurable, and it cannot be reduced to their sum or their difference.”
This definition emphasizes the nature of emergent structures which, in their nature, not allow for accurate or even adequate calculation or prediction.
KeywordsGeographic Information System Emergency Management Crisis Management Cooperative Work Collective Intelligence
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