Innovation und Evolution von Geschäftsmodellen dargestellt am Beispiel BP Solar

Chapter

Zusammenfassung

British Petroleum (BP) gehörte zu den ersten Ölkonzernen, die Solartechnologien im großen Stil kommerzialisiert haben. BP bzw. das Tochterunternehmen BP Solar galt zeitweise als eines der größten vollintegrierten Solarunternehmen der Welt. Es wurde in Folge der Ölkrisen der 1970er Jahre und als Teil einer allgemeinen Diversifikationsstrategie gegründet und avancierte später zum zentralen Element der Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) und Nachhaltigkeitsaktivitäten des Konzerns. Jedoch wurde BP Solar im Dezember 2011 aufgrund schwieriger Industrieentwicklungen und unzureichender Erfolgsaussichten aufgelöst. Interessanterweise war das Unternehmen in der jüngeren Vergangenheit durchaus in der Lage, einen „Solar Business Case“ zu realisieren, d. h. geschäftlichen Erfolg auf Basis umweltschonender Solartechnologien. Das Kapitel untersucht wie dieser Erfolg erzielt wurde und wie durch Geschäftsmodellinnovationen und einen Prozess der Geschäftsmodellevolution der Erfolg erhalten und ausgebaut werden sollte – was schließlich jedoch nicht ausreichend gelungen ist. Für diese Untersuchung wurden die jeweils 14 Jahres- und Nachhaltigkeitsberichte des Konzerns von 1998 bis 2011 (1.854 Seiten) sowie 359 Pressemitteilungen und Reden (1.505 Seiten) mithilfe der Textanalysesoftware MAXQDA ausgewertet. Das Ziel war die Rekonstruktion des Geschäftsmodells und der Geschäftsmodellinnovationen hinter BPs Solaraktivitäten. Als theoretischer Untersuchungsrahmen wurde das „Business Case for Sustainability“-Konzept aus der Nachhaltigkeitsmanagement-Forschung herangezogen. Diese Untersuchung zeigt, dass die Entwicklung von BP Solar auf einer Geschäftsmodellevolution basierte, die zwei klar unterscheidbare Innovationspfade integrierte, den „Optimierungs-“ und den „Marktentwicklungspfad“.

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Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fakultät Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Professur für BWL, insbes. Kapitalmärkte & UnternehmensführungUniversität HamburgHamburgDeutschland

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