A serious game to improve situation awareness in laparoscopic surgery

  • Maurits Graafland
  • Marlies P. Schijven


Safety analyses show that errors in surgery are more frequently caused by misperceptions and misjudgments than from technical failure of the surgeons. The adaptive coupling between humans and their environment, based on the perception and comprehension of signs and signals when performing a complex task, is referred to as situation awareness (SA). To date, no off-site training methods are offered to improve SA in surgical trainees. To aid the improvement of SA in minimally invasive surgery (MIS), a serious game was designed for surgical trainees. This serious game teaches surgical trainees to deal with major and minor problems in the minimallyinvasive surgical theatre that originate outside of the direct line of sight. Serious games are instructional methods that allow serious skills training in a challenging environment. This paper discusses insights on design, development and evaluation of a game-based educational program for surgical residents.


Minimally Invasive Surgery Situation Awareness Game Designer Surgical Resident Surgical Trainee 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maurits Graafland
    • 1
  • Marlies P. Schijven
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryAcademic Medical CentreAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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