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Islam in Europe: Cross-National Differences in Accommodation and Explanations

Part of the Islam und Politik book series (ISPO)


The aim of this volume was to provide insights into how Islam as a non-Christian immigrant religion is integrated into European societies. Rather than looking at indicators of individual integration and well-being among Muslims in Europe, we took an institutional perspective on this question by analyzing how European public institutions, legal and political systems, Muslim organizations and representatives, as well as other actors from civil society and the religious field have reacted to the change in Europe’s religious landscape that was driven by immigration from countries with Muslim majorities. As the institutions of the immigration countries have been shaped mainly against the backdrop of Christianity as the majority religion, the implantation of a new faith group raises the question whether and to what extent present institutional arrangements are to be renegotiated.


  • Muslim Community
  • Religious Freedom
  • Halal Food
  • Supranational Institution
  • Muslim Immigrant

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  1. 1.

    The ICRI project only provides information on Spain for the years 2008 and 2012.

  2. 2.

    The indicators of cultural pluralism are: Allowance of dual nationality, Cultural requirements for naturalization (e.g., language skills, oaths of allegiance, evidence of cultural and social assimilation), Cultural requirements for incoming spouses (e.g., language tests abroad), Existence of quotas or preferential hiring for minority groups for public sector jobs, Immigrant consultative bodies on the national level, Immigrant consultative bodies on the local level, Mother tongue teaching in public schools, Cultural requirements for the granting of residence permits (e.g., language skills, other knowledge of the host society), Programs in immigrant languages in public broadcasting (radio and television).

  3. 3.

    The indicators of religious pluralism are: Muslim consultative bodies, Number of state-funded Islamic elementary and secondary schools (per 100,000 Muslims), Share of costs of Islamic elementary and secondary schools that is covered by the state, Islamic religious classes in state schools, Right of Muslim female teachers to wear a headscarf in public schools, Right of Muslim students to wear a headscarf in public schools, Allowance of ritual slaughtering of animals according to the Islamic rite, Allowance of the Islamic call to prayer in public, Number of mosques with recognizable architecture (i.e., with minaret; per 100,000 Muslims), Existence of Muslim cemeteries and separate sections of cemeteries, Allowance of burial according to the Islamic rite (i.e., without coffin), Islamic religious programs in public broadcasting (radio and television), Muslim chaplains in prisons, Muslim chaplains in the military.

  4. 4.

    Matthias Koenig (in this volume) hypothesizes that corporatist polities to lead to the development of hierarchically structured religious organizations.


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Michalowski, I., Burchardt, M. (2015). Islam in Europe: Cross-National Differences in Accommodation and Explanations. In: Burchardt, M., Michalowski, I. (eds) After Integration. Islam und Politik. Springer VS, Wiesbaden.

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