Machtressourcentheorie und Korporatismusansatz

Chapter

Zusammenfassung

Inwiefern haben gesellschaftliche Interessengruppen einen Einfluss auf Politik und Wirtschaft? In modernen Industriegesellschaften stellt sich die Frage, welche politischen und gesellschaftlichen Auswirkungen der Interessenkonflikt zwischen Arbeit und Kapital hat. Die Machtressourcentheorie untersucht die politischen und außerparlamentarischen Einflussmöglichkeiten sozialer Gruppen, insbesondere der Arbeiterbewegung (linke Parteien und Gewerkschaften). Sie nimmt an, dass gesellschaftliche Verteilungspolitik das Ergebnis der Machtverhältnisse sozialer Gruppen und ihres politischen Einflusses ist. Der Neo-Korporatismus-Ansatz konzentriert sich hingegen auf die Bedingungen und Auswirkungen von institutionalisierter Interessenvermittlung zwischen Staat und Verbänden. In korporatistischen Demokratien wird den Interessengruppen, insbesondere Gewerkschaften und Wirtschaftsverbänden, eine gesellschaftliche Partizipation an der Politikgestaltung und Implementierung in der Sozial- und Wirtschaftspolitik zugestanden. Indikatoren für die Machtressourcen umfassen einerseits den politischen Einfluss von linken und rechten Parteien und andererseits die Organisationsstärke von Gewerkschaften im Vergleich zu den Arbeitgebern. Indikatoren des Korporatismus messen sowohl die organisatorischen Dimensionen des Verbändesystems als auch das Ausmaß der Interessenvermittlung durch Kollektiverträge und Konzertierung. Die international vergleichende Forschung hat beide Ansätze verwendet, um den langfristigen Ausbau des Wohlfahrtsstaates zu untersuchen. In jüngster Zeit wird die Rolle von linken Parteien und Gewerkschaften sowie sozialer Pakte in Zeiten des Umbaus jedoch unterschiedlich bewertet.

Keywords:

Machtressourcen; Korporatismus; Gewerkschaften; Arbeitgeber; Interessengruppen 

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für Soziologie III – MakrosoziologieUniversität MannheimMannheimDeutschland

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