Democracy in the European Union: The Problem of Political Capacity

  • Peter A. Hall


Throughout a distinguished academic career, Manfred Schmidt (1996, 1999, 2002c, 2006) has always been concerned with the performance of democracies, which he sees as an eminently political matter, deeply conditioned by the quality of partisan political competition, but also dependent on the institutional structures superintending governance. His most famous works examine the effects of governmental structures on the extent to which party competition conditions public policies. By and large, he finds that partisan effects are more pronounced in majoritarian forms of democracy, thereby enhancing lines of accountability to the electorate, but that non-majoritarian forms have other advantages, for instance, for ensuring social cohesion and political stability (cf. Lijphart 1999; Armingeon 2002).


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Armingeon, Klaus. 2002. The effects of negotiation democracy: A comparative analysis. European Journal of Political Research 41: 81–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barosso, José Manuel. 2009. Speech by José Manuel Durão Barosso at the Signature Ceremony for the Lisbon Treaty in Poland, October 10, 2009.Google Scholar
  3. Beer, Samuel H. 1966. The British legislature and the problem of mobilizing consent. In Lawmakers in a changing world, ed. Elke Frank, 30–48. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  4. Berger, Suzanne (ed.). 1983. Organizing interests in Western Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Crozier, Michel, Samuel P. Huntington, and Joji Watanuki. 1974. Crisis of democracies. New York: Trilaterial Commission.Google Scholar
  6. Dahl, Robert. 1989. Democracy and its critics. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Eichenberg, Richard C., and Russell. J. Dalton. 2007. Post-Maastricht blues: The transformation of citizen support for European Integration, 1973–2004. Acta Politica 42: 128–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ertman, Thomas. 1998. Democracy and dictatorship in interwar Europe revisited. World Politics 50: 475–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. European Union (2010) Eurobarometer 70: The European Union and its citizens. Brussels: European Union.Google Scholar
  10. Evans, Ana M., and M. P. Vink. 2010. Party group switching in the European parliament: Definition, measurement and trends (1979–2009). Paper presented at the Fifth Pan-European Conference on EU Politics, Porto, June.Google Scholar
  11. Fabrinni, Sergio. 2007. Compound democracies: Why the United States and Europe are becoming similar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Ferrera, Maurizio. 2009. The JCMS annual lecture: National welfare states and European integration in search of a “virtuous nesting”. Journal of Common Market Studies 47: 219–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Follesdal, Andreas, and Simon Hix. 2006. Why there is a democratic deficit in the EU: A response to Majone and Moravcsik. Journal of Common Market Studies 44: 533–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hall, Peter A. 2006. Introduction: The politics of social change in France. In Changing France: The politics that markets make, ed. Pepper Culpepper, Peter. A. Hall, and Bruno Palier, 1–28. Houndsmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  15. Hall, Peter A. 2012a. The economics and politics of European monetary union. German Politics (December).Google Scholar
  16. Hall, Peter A. 2012b. The mythology of European monetary union. Swiss Review of Political Science (December): 508–13.Google Scholar
  17. Held, David. 1999. Models of democracy, 2nd ed. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Hix, Simon. 2008. What’s wrong with the European Union and how to fix it. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  19. Hoffmann, Stanley. 1963. The paradoxes of the French political community. In In Search of France, ed. Stanley Hoffmann et al. , 1–117. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  20. Hooghe, Liesbet, and Gary Marks. 2001. Multi-Level governance and European integration. Boulder: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  21. Hooghe , Liesbet , Gary Marks, and Carole J. Wilson. 2002. Does left/right structure party positions on European integration? Comparative Political Studies 35: 965–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Joerges, Christian, and Jürgen Neyer. 1997. From intergovernmental bargaining to deliberative political processes: The constitutionalisation of comitology. European Law Journal 3: 273–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kriesi , Hanspeter , Edgar Grande, Romain Lachat, Martin Dolezal, Simon Bornschier, and Timotheos Frey. 2006. Globalization and the transformation of the national political space: Six European countries compared. European Journal of Political Research 45: 921–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lijhart, Arendt. 1999. Patterns of democracy: Government forms and performance in thirty-six countries. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Majone, Gianfranco. 1996. Regulating Europe. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mény, Yves, and Andrew Moravcsik. 2009. Discutono di democrazia Europea. Il Mulino: Rivista Bimestrale di Cultura e di Politica 3: 457–66.Google Scholar
  27. Moravcsik, Andrew. 2002. In defence of the democratic deficit: Reassessing legitimacy in the European Union. Journal of Common Market Studies 40: 603–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moravcsik, Andrew. 2008. The myth of Europe’s democratic deficit. Intereconomics: Journal of European Public Policy: 331–340.Google Scholar
  29. Polanyi, Karl. 1944. The great transformation: Economic and political origins of our time. New York: Rinehart.Google Scholar
  30. Rosanvallon, Pierre. 2011. Democratic legitimacy: impartiality, reflexivity, proximity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Rosenberg, Arthur. 1964. Imperial Germany. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  32. Ross, George. 1995. Jacques Delors and European integration. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  33. Salomone, A. William (ed.). 1970. Italy from risorgimento to fascism. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  34. Scharpf, Fritz W. 1999. Governing in Europe: Effective and democratic? Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schmidt, Manfred G. 1996. When parties matter: A review of the possibilities and limits of partisan influence on public policy. European Journal of Political Research 30: 155–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schmidt, Manfred G. 1999. On the political productivity of democracies. Scandinavian Political Studies 22(4):281–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schmidt, Manfred G. 2002a. The impact of political parties, constitutional structures and veto players on public policy. In Comparative Democratic Politics, ed. Hans Keman, 166–184. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  38. Schmidt, Manfred G. 2002b. Germany: The grand coalition state. In Political Institutions in Europe, ed. Josep. M. Colomer, 55–93. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Schmidt, Manfred G. 2002c. Political performance and types of democracies: Findings from comparative research. European Journal of Political Research 41: 147–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schmidt, Manfred G. 2006. Die Zukunft der Demokratie. Zeitschrift für Parlamentsfragen 37: 812–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schmitter, Philippe, and Gerhard Lehmbruch (eds.). 1979. Trends toward corporatist intermediation. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  42. Siedentop, Larry. 2001. Democracy in Europe. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Smith, Anthony. 2004. Politics and the European Commission: Actors, interdependence, legitimacy. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vliegenthart, Rens, Andreas R. T. Schuck, Hajo G. Boomgaarden and Claes H. De Vreese. 2008. News coverage and support for European integration, 1990–2006. International Journal of Public Opinion Research 20: 415–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wehler, Hans-Ulrich. 1985. The German empire 1871–1918. Leamington Spa: Berg.Google Scholar
  46. Wright. Gordon. 1995. France in modern times: From the enlightenment to the present. 5th ed. New York: Norton.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter A. Hall
    • 1
  1. 1.CambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations