The 4D Model of Place Brand Management

  • Melodena Stephens Balakrishnan
  • Greg Kerr
Part of the Management – Culture – Interpretation book series (MCI)


Place branding is receiving increased practitioner and academic attention. While the need and benefits are becoming more widely accepted, there is uncertainty as to the application of brand principles to places. Both the similarities and differences between corporate brands and place brands have been given attention in the literature with the consensus being that place branding is more complex. This work identifies some of the issues and processes relative to place brand management. While not purporting to be a definitive model of place branding, a model consisting of four sequential stages is proposed. The 4D model consists of the stages of deciding, designing, delivering, and determining and is supported by relevant literature and examples from the United Arab Emirates. It is anticipated that the model will contribute to academic work and as well be of benefit to practitioners charged with place branding.


United Arab Emirate Place Attachment Corporate Brand Internal Stakeholder Brand Management 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. American Marketing Association (2005): Dictionary of marketing terms., 20.06.2007.
  2. Avraham, E. (2004): Media strategies for improving an unfavorable city image. In: Cities, 21(6), 471-479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balmer, J. and Greyser, S. (2003): Revealing the corporation. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Baxter, J. and Kerr, G. (2010): The meaning and measurement of place identity and place image. European Regional Science Association Congress, August 19-23, Jönköping, Sweden.Google Scholar
  5. Buhalis, D. (2000): Marketing the competitive destination of the future. In: Tourism Management, 21(1), 97-116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Chernatony, L. (1999): Brand management through narrowing the gap between brand identity and brand reputation. In: Journal of Marketing Management, 15(1-3), 157-179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dickinson, S. (2007): Urban regeneration: UK practice. In: Diamond, J., Liddle, J., Southern, A. and Townsend, A. (eds.): Managing the city. Abingdon: Routledge, 16-31.Google Scholar
  8. Dinnie, K. (2008): Nation branding: Concepts, issues, practice. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.Google Scholar
  9. Dinnie, K. and Melewar, T. (2008): Call for papers: International perspectives on nation branding: Current trends and future directions. In: International Marketing Review,, 15.04.2008.
  10. Florek, M. (2011): No place like home: Perspectives on place attachment and impacts on city management. In: Journal of Town and City Management, 1(4), 346-354.Google Scholar
  11. Future Brand (2006): Country brand index., 01.03.2009.
  12. Gilmore, F. (2002): A country – can it be repositioned?: Spain – the success story of country branding. In: Journal of Brand Management, 9(4/5), 281-283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Government of Abu Dhabi (2011): Abu Dhabi 2030., 13.06.2009.
  14. Government of Abu Dhabi (2011): Abu Dhabi strategic plan 2008-2012., 09.06.2011.
  15. Government of Dubai,(2007): Dubai strategic plan 2015.,hm_dxbstgplan,1,&_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=3, 13.06.2009.
  16. Green, S. (2005): Defining West London: A case study of the initial stages of a strategic place branding exercise. In: Co Design, 1(4), 277-287.Google Scholar
  17. Hall, C.M. (2008): Servicescapes, designscapes, branding, and the creation of placeidentity: South of Litchfield, Christchurch. In: Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 25(3), 233-250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hankinson, G. (2001): Location branding: A study of the branding practices of 12 English cities. In: Journal of Brand Management, 9(2), 127-143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hankinson, G. (2003): Relational network brands: Towards a conceptual model of place brands. In: Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10(2), 109-121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hankinson, G. and Cowking, P. (1995): What do you really mean by a brand? In: Journal of Brand Management, 3(1), 43-50.Google Scholar
  21. Harris, F. and de Chernatony, L. (2001): Corporate branding and corporate brand performance. In: European Journal of Marketing, 35(3/4), 442-456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hatch, M. and Schultz, M. (2003): Bringing the corporation into corporate branding. In: European Journal of Marketing, 37(7/8), 1041-1064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hidalgo, M. and Hernandez, B. (2001): Place attachment: Conceptual and empirical questions. In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21(3), 273-281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jansen, S. (2008): Designer nations: Neo-liberal nation branding – brand Estonia. In: Journal for the Study of Race, Nation and Culture, 14(1), 121-142.Google Scholar
  25. Kavaratzis, M. and Ashworth, G. (2007): Partners in coffee chops, canals and commerce: Marketing the city of Amsterdam. In: Cities, 24(1), 16-25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Keller, K. (2008): Strategic brand mangement. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  27. Kerr, G. (2007): Location branding of a city: Formulation to implementation. Location Branding Conference, May 10-11, Barcelona, Spain.Google Scholar
  28. Kerr, G. and Braithwaite, B. (2011): A framework for preparing and implementing economic development plans for local government areas in Australia. ANZRSAI Conference, December 6-9, Canberra, Australia.Google Scholar
  29. Kerr, G., Noble, G. and Glynn, J. (2007): The role of community leaders as ’senior managers’ in place brand implementation. ANZMAC Conference, December, Dunedin, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  30. Kotler, P., Haider, D. and Rein, I. (1993): Marketing places: Attracting investment, industry, and tourism to cities, states, and nations. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  31. Mommaas, H. (2002): City branding: The necessity of socio-cultural goals. In: Patteeuw, V. (ed.): City branding: Image building and building images. Rotterdam: Nai Uitgevers Publishers, 34-47.Google Scholar
  32. Morgan, A. (1999): Eating the big fish. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  33. Morgan, N., Pritchard, A. and Pride, R. (2004): Destination branding: Creating the unique destination proposition. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  34. Mutlu, D. (2005): The midnight express (1978): Phenomenon and the image of Turkey. In: Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, 25(3), 475-496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Office of the Brand of Abu Dhabi (2007): Abu Dhabi brand identity. Abu Dhabi.Google Scholar
  36. Olins, W. (1999): Trading identities: Why countries and companies are taking on each others’ roles. London: The Foreign Policy Centre.Google Scholar
  37. Petromilli, M., Morrison, D. and Million, M. (2002): Brand architecture: Building brand portfolio value. In: Strategy and Leadership, 30(5), 22-28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schwartz, B. (2004): The paradox of choice. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  39. Simeon, R. (2006): A conceptual model linking brand building strategies and Japanese popular culture. In: Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 24(5), 463-476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Stuart, H. (1999): Towards a definitive model of the corporate identity management process. In: Corporate Communications, 4(4), 200-207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Urde, M. (1994): Brand oriemntation: A strategy for survival. In: The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 11(3), 18-18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Urde, M. (1999): Brand orientation: A mindset for building brands into strategic resources. In: Journal of Marketing Management, 15(1-3), 117-133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Urde, M., Baumgarth, C. and Merrilees, B. (2011): Brand orientation and market orientation: From alternatives to synergy. In: Journal of Business Research, Article in Press.Google Scholar
  44. Van Ham, P. (2001): The rise of the brand state: The Postmodern politics of image and reputation. In: Foreign Affairs, 80(5), 2-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of WollongongWollongongAustralia

Personalised recommendations