We showed in Sect. 17.3 that the nuclear ground states may be well described if we assume that the nucleons are in the lowest shell model orbits. The single particle picture, we further showed for the case of a single valence nucleon or nucleon hole, works very well if shells are nearly full or empty. Excited states are then understood as being created by a valence nucleon jumping into a higher shell model state; a direct analogy to our picture of the atom. As well as such straightforward single particle excitations, more complicated phenomena can take place in the nucleus. Collective excitations provide some of the most beautiful aspects of nuclear dynamics.
KeywordsHelium 208Pb Germanium Neodymium Prolate
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