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Echokardiographie

  • P. Bubenheimer

Zusammenfassung

Die apparative Technik der Echokardiographie (Ultraschallkardiographie) basiert auf dem im ersten Weltkrieg entwickelten Echolotsystem für die unterseeische Navigation (Sonar). In der klinischen Kardiologie wurde das Echolot erstmals von Edler u. Hertz (1954) in Schweden angewandt, v.a. zur Diagnostik der Mitralstenose (Edler 1956; Edler u. Gustafson 1957). In Deutschland arbeiteten damals v.a. Effert et al. (1957) mit der Ultraschallkardiographie. Sie konnten mit dieser Methode erstmals Vorhoftumoren nichtinvasiv nachweisen (Effert u. Domanig 1959) und trugen durch die Einführung der direkten und kontinuierlichen Registrierung (Effert et al. 1959) wesentlich zur späteren Entwicklung und Ausbreitung der Methode bei. Wesentliche Impulse erhielt die Methode von Feigenbaum et al., die ausgehend von ihren Untersuchungen bei Perikardergüssen (Feigenbaum et al. 1965) die Grundlagen für die Funktionsdiagnostik des linken Ventrikels legten (Feigenbaum et al. 1967, 1968; Popp et al. 1969), sowie von Gramiak et al. (1969), die durch die Injektion von reflektierenden Lösungen in bestimmte Herzkammern während der Katheterisierung eine Reihe echographisch darstellbarer intrakardialer Strukturen identifizieren konnten.

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