Twenty years have passed since attention was drawn to moyamoya disease as a distinct disease entity, but as yet no theory has become established concerning the direct cause of the stenotic changes in the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery, which are thought to be the earliest pathological changes in this disease [61, 78, 81, 142, 167, 184, 213, 258, 289, 313]. In recent years, the participation of HLA antigens  and autologous antibodies in moyamoya disease has been suggested, but no hypothesis has yet found direct empirical support and, in fact, there has been virtually no experimental research  on its etiology.
KeywordsInternal Carotid Artery Sympathetic Nerve Vascular Change Moyamoya Disease Superior Cervical Ganglion
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