Male Breast Cancer

  • J. Huys
  • F. De Laender
Part of the Handbuch der Medizinischen Radiologie / Encyclopedia of Medical Radiology book series (HDBRADIOL, volume 19 / 2)


Breast cancer in the male is an uncommon disease: only about 0.7% of all cancers in the male are breast cancer, the findings ranging from 0.38% to 1.5% (Sachs, 1941; Brunet et al, 1977). In fact it occurs so infrequently that neither patients nor physicians are very familiar with it. This infrequency is thought to be due to the fact that the male breast remains anatomically and functionally a rudimentary organ, the general rule being that cancer seldom arises in vestigial organs (Payson and Rosh, 1949).


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, D.E.: A genetic study of human breast cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 48, 1029–1034 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, D.E.: Genetic study of breast cancer: Identification of a high risk group. Cancer 34, 1090–1097 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beatson, G.T.: On the treatment of inoperable cases of carcinoma of the mamma: Suggestions for a new method of treatment with illustrative cases. Lancet II, 104–107, 162–165 (1896)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benson, W.R.: Carcinoma of the prostate with metastases to breasts and testis: Critical review of literature and report of a case. Cancer 10, 1235–1245 (1957)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berge, T.: Metastases to the male breast. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 79, 491–196 (1971)Google Scholar
  6. Bhagwandeen, S.B.: Carcinoma of the male breast in Zambia. E. Afr. Med. J. 49, 89 (1972)Google Scholar
  7. Bloom, H.J.G.: Prognosis in carcinoma of the breast. Br. J. Cancer 4, 259–288 (1950a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bloom, H.J.G.: Further studies on prognosis of breast carcinoma. Br. J. Cancer 4, 347–367 (1950b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bloom, H.J.G.: The influence of delay on the natural history and prognosis of breast cancer. Br. J. Cancer 19, 228 (1965)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bloom, H.J.G., Richardson, W.W.: Histological grading and prognosis in breast cancer. Br. J. Cancer 11, 359 (1957)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bonadonna, G., Brusamolino, E., Valagussa, P., Bossi, A., Brugnatelli, L., Brambella, C., De Lena, M., Tancini, G., Baiella, E., Musumeci, R., Veronesi, U.: Combination chemotherapy as an adjuvant treatment in operable breast cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 294, 405 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bonser, G.M., Dossett, J.A., Juli, J.W.: Human and experimental breast cancer. London: Pitman Medical Publications. 1961Google Scholar
  13. Broder, L.E., Tormey, D.C.: Combination chemotherapy of carcinoma of the breast. Cancer Treat. Rev. 1, 183–203 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brunet, M., Janin, M.-L., Berlie, J.: Le cancer du sein chez l’homme. Nouv. Presse Méd. 6, 721–724 (1977)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bunting, J.S., Hemsted, E.H., Kremer, J.K.: The pattern of spread and survival in 596 cases of breast cancer related to clinical staging and histological grade. Clin. Radiol. 27, 9–15 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burrows, H.: Carcinoma mammae occuring in a male mouse under continued treatment with oestrin. Am. J. Cancer 24, 613 (1935)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cade, S.: Adrenalectomy in cancer of the breast. In: Endocrine aspects of breast cancer. Currie, A.R., (ed.), pp. 2–5. Edinburgh: Livingstone 1958Google Scholar
  18. Cameron, J.M., Litton, A., Lyon, D.S.: Primary carcinoma multiplex. J. Clin. Pathol. 14, 574–577 (1961)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Campbell, J.H., Cummins, S.D., Kirk, D.L., Mattews, W.R.: Secondary breast cancer of prostatic origin. J.A.M.A. 179, 158 (1962)Google Scholar
  20. Carter, S.K.: The chemical therapy of breast cancer. Semin. Oncol. 1, 131–144 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Classen, J.N., Montague, A.C.W., Wilgis, S.: Cancer in the male breast. Arch. Surg. 100, 66–67 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Clemmesen, J.: Statistical study in the aetiology of malignant neoplasms. I. Review of results Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. [Suppl] 174, 1–543 (1965)Google Scholar
  23. Constable, J.D., Lawrence, J.H., Born, J.L., Carlson, R.C., Ariotti, P.E., Sargatti, F.F., Tobias, C.A., Toch, T.: Effect of alpha particle hypophysectomy on disseminated cancer of male breast. J.A.M.A. 174, 1720 (1960)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Contesso, G., Delarue, J.-C., Guerinot, F., May-Levin, F., Bohvon, C.: Récepteurs aux estrogènes et aux progestagènes en pathologie mammaire chez l’homme. Nouv. Presse Méd. 6, 1951–1953 (1977)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Crichlow, R.W.: Carcinoma of the male breast. Surg, Gynecol. Obstet. 134, 1011–1019 (1972)Google Scholar
  26. Crichlow, R.W.: Breast cancer in men. Sem. Oncol. 1, 145–152 (1974)Google Scholar
  27. Crichlow, R.W.: Management of male breast cancer. In: Breast cancer management. Stoll, B.A. (ed.), pp. 167–173. London: William Heinemann Medical Books 1977Google Scholar
  28. Crichlow, R.W., Czernobilsky, B.: Paget’s disease of the male breast. Cancer 24, 1033–1040 (1969)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Crichlow, R.W., Kaplan, E.L., Kearney, W.H.: Male breast cancer: A review of 32 cases. Ann. Surg. 175, 489–494 (1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Crile, G., Jr.: Results of simple mastectomy without irradiation in the treatment of operative stage I cancer of the breast. Ann. Surg. 168, 330–336 (1968)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cuenca, C.R., Becker, K.L.: Klinefelter’s syndrome and cancer of the breast. Arch. Intern. Med. 121, 159 (1968)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dao, T.L.: Cancer of the male breast treated by adrenalectomy. Surg. Clin. North Am. 35, 1663–1667 (1955)Google Scholar
  33. Dao, T.L., Greiner, M.J.: Mammary carcinogenesis by 3-methyl-cholanthrene. III. Induction of mammary carcinoma and milk secretion in male rats bearing ovarian grafts. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 27, 333–349 (1961) (Induction)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dao, T.L., Morreal, C., Nemoto, T.: Urinary estrogen excretion in men with breast cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 289, 138–140 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Davies, J.N.P: Sex hormone upset in Africans. Br. Med. J. ii, 676 (1949)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. De Schryver, A.: The Stockholm breast cancer trial: Preliminary report of a randomized study concerning the value of preoperative or post-operative radiotherapy in operable disease. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 1, 601–609 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Deutsch, M., Altomare, F.J., Mastrian, A.J., Chervenak, J.P.: Carcinoma of the male breast following thymic irradiation. Radiology 116, 413–414 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Donegan, W.L., Perez-Mesa, C.M.: Carcinoma of the male breast. A 30-year review of 28 cases. Arch. Surg. 106, 273–279 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Douglas, M.: Indications for adrenalectomy or hypophysectomy in advanced breast cancer. Acta Endocrinol. [Suppl.] (Kbh. 31, 307–313 (1957)Google Scholar
  40. Easson, E.C.: Postoperative radiotherapy in breast cancer. In: Prognostic factors in breast cancer. Proc. 1st Tenovus Symposium, Cardiff, 1967, p. 118–135. Forest, A.P.M., Kunkler, P.B. (eds.), Edinburgh: Livingstone 1968Google Scholar
  41. El-Gazayerli, M.M., Abdel-Aziz, A.S.: On bilharziasis and male breast cancer in Egypt: A preliminary report and review of the literature. Br. J. Cancer 17, 566 (1963)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Everson, R.B., Li, F.P., Fraumeni, J.F., Wilson, R.E., Li, F.P., Fishman, J., Stout, D., Norris, H.J.: Familial male breast cancer. Lancet 9–12 (1976)Google Scholar
  43. Farrow, J.H., Adair, F.E.: Effect of orchiectomy on skeletal metastases from cancer of the male breast. Science 95, 654 (1942)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Farrow, J.H., Woodard, H.Q.: Influence of androgenic and estrogenic substances on serum calcium in cases of skeletal metastases from mammary cancer. J.A.M.A. 118, 339–343 (1942)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fisher, B, Slack, N.H., Bross, I.J.: Cancer of the breast. Size of neoplasms and prognosis. Cancer 24, 107 (1968)Google Scholar
  46. Fischer, B, Slack, N.H., Cavanaugh, P.J., Gardner, B., Ravelin, R.G.: Postoperative radiotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer. Ann. Surg. 172, 711–729 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fisher, B., Carbone, P., Economou, S.G., Frelick, R., Glass, A., Lerner, H, Redmond, C., Zelen, M., Katrych, D.L., Wolmack, N., Band, P., Fisher, E.R.: L-phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM) in the management of primary breast cancer: A report of early findings. N. Engl. J. Med. 292, 117–122 (1975)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Forman, M.: Roentgenography in the male breast. Am. J. Roentgenol. 88, 1126–1134 (1962)Google Scholar
  49. Fracchia, A.A.: Indications for castration and adrenalectomy for advanced breast cancer. Cancer 28, 1699–1701 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fracchia, A.A., Randall, H.T., Farrow, J.F.: The results of adrenalectomy in advanced breast cancer in 500 consecutive patients. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 125, 747–756 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Fracchia, A.A., Farrow, J.H., Miller, T.R.: Hypophysectomy as compared to adrenalectomy for advanced breast cancer. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 133, 241–246 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Furth, A.W., Upton, A.C., Kimball, A.W.: Late pathologic effects of atomic detonation and their pathogenesis. Radiat. Res. 1, Suppl., 243–264 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Garfinkel, L., Craig, L., Scidman, H.: An appraisal of left and right breast cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 23, 617–633 (1959)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Geller, J., Volk, H.: Objective remission of metastatic breast cancer in a male who received 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (Delalutin). Cancer Chemother. 14, 77 (1961)Google Scholar
  55. Gilbert, J.B.: Carcinoma of the male breast. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 57, 451 (1933)Google Scholar
  56. Gleichman, H.G.: Die Beziehungen zwischen Gynäkomastie und Karzinom der Mamma. Z. gesamten Inn. Med. 8, 567 (1953)Google Scholar
  57. Greening, W.P., Aichroth, P.M.: Cancer of the male breast. Br. J. Cancer 19, 92–100 (1965)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gros, Ch., Gautherie, M., Archer, F.: Terminologie thermographique des épithéliomes mammaires. Bull. Cancer (Paris) 58, 69–90 (1971)Google Scholar
  59. Gros, Ch., Gautherie, M., Bourjat, P.: Séméiologie thermographique des gynécomasties. Ann. Radiol. (Paris) 16, 667–679 (1973)Google Scholar
  60. Gros, Ch., Gautherie, M., Bourjat, P.: Complémentarité des méthodes physiques dans l’exploration de l’épithélioma mammaire chez l’homme. Ann. Radiol. (Paris) 17, 775–784 (1974)Google Scholar
  61. Guthorn, P.H.: Carcinoma of the male breast: A report of 15 cases. Milit. Surg. 109, 110 (1951)Google Scholar
  62. Haagensen, C.D.: Diseases of the breast. 2nd ed., revised reprint, chapt. 38, pp. 779–792. Philadelphia: Saunders 1972Google Scholar
  63. Hahnell, R., Twaddle, E.: Estimation of the association constant of the estrogen receptor complex in human breast cancer. Cancer Res. 33, 559–566 (1973)Google Scholar
  64. Harnden, D.G., MacLean, N., Langlands, A.O.: Carcinoma of the breast and Klinefelter’s syndrome. J. Med. Genet. 8, 460–461 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Henderson, B.E., Powell, D., Rosario, I.: An epidemiologic study of breast cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 53, 609–614 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Höst, H., Brennhovd, I.O.: Combined surgery and radiation therapy versus surgery alone in primary mammary carcinoma. Acta Radiol. 14, 25 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Holleb, A.I, Freeman, H.P., Farrow, J.H.: Cancer of male breast parts I. N.Y. State J. Med. 68, 544–553 (1968a) II. N.Y. State J. Med. 68, 656–663 (1968 b)Google Scholar
  68. Houttuin, E., Van Prohaska, J., Taxman, P.: Response of male mammary carcinoma metastases to bilateral adrenaltectomy. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 125, 279–283 (1967)Google Scholar
  69. Horn, Y., Roof, B.: Male breast cancer: Two cases with objective regressions from calusterone (7 alpha, 17 beta-dimethyltestosterone) after failure of orchiectomy. Oncology 33, 188–191 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Huggins, C., Jr, Bergenstal, D.M.: Inhibition of human mammary and prostatic cancer by adrenalectomy. Cancer Res. 12, 134 (1952)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Huggins, C., Dao,T.L.Y.: Adrenalectomy and oophorectomy in treatment of advanced carcinoma of the breast. J.A.M.A. 151, 1388–1394 (1953)Google Scholar
  72. Huggins, C., Jr, Taylor, G.W.: Carcinoma of male breast. Arch. Surg. 70, 303–308 (1955)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jackson, A.W., Muldal, S., Ockey, C.H.,: Carcinoma of male breast in association with the Klinefelter syndrome. Br. Med. J. 1, 223 (1965)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Jellins, J., Kossoff, G., Reeve, T.S.: Ultrasonic grey scale visualization of breast disease. Ultrasound Med. Biol. 1, 393–404 (1975a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jellins, J., Kossoff, F., Reeve, T.S.: The ultrasonic appearance of pathology in the male breast. Ultrasound Med. Biol. 2, 43–44 (1975b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kaae, S., Johansen, H.: Simple mastectomy plus postoperative irradiation by the method of McWhirter for mammary carcinoma. Am. J. Roentgenol. 87, 82–88 (1962)Google Scholar
  77. Kaae, S., Johansen, H.: Simple mastectomy plus postoperative irradiation by the method of McWhirter for mammary carcinoma. Prog. Clin. Cancer 1, 453–461 (1965)Google Scholar
  78. Kak, V.K.: Hypophysectomy for the treatment of paraplegia due to metastatic breast carcinoma in the male. Indian. Med. J. 3, 442 (1973)Google Scholar
  79. Kalisber, L., Peyster, R.G.: Xerographic manifestations of male breast disease. Am. J. Roentgenol. 125, 656–661 (1975)Google Scholar
  80. Keller, A.Z.: Demographic, clinical and survivorship characteristics of males with primary cancer of the breast. Am. J. Epidemiol. 85, 183–199 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Kennedy, B.J.: Hormonal therapies in breast cancer. Semin. Oncol. 1, 119–130 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kennedy, B.J., Kiang, D.T.: Hypophysectomy in the treatment of advanced cancer of the male breast. Cancer 29, 1606–1612 (1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Komurdzhiev, H.A., Rogoznaya, A.V.: Carcinoma of. the breast in men. Vopr. Onkol. 1 87–93 (1964)Google Scholar
  84. Korsten, C.B., Engelsman, E., Persijn, J.-P.: Clinical value of estrogen receptors in human breast cancer. In: Estrogen receptors in human breast cancer. McGuire, W.L., Carbone, P.P., Vollmer, E.P. (eds.), pp. 93–105. New York: Raven Press 1975Google Scholar
  85. Krückemeyer, K.: Dysplasien des Drüsenepithels bei Fibrosis mammae virilis. Beziehungen zum Karzinom. Münch. Med. Wochenschr. 110, 2798 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Lacassagne, A.: Apparition de cancers de la mamelle chez la souris mâle, soumise à des injections de folliculine. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 795, 630 (1932)Google Scholar
  87. Lane-Claypon, J.E.: A further report on cancer of the breast with special reference to its associated antecedent conditions. Public health and medical subjects, No. 32. London British Ministry of Health, 1926Google Scholar
  88. Langlands, A.O, MacLean, N, Kerr, G.R.: Carcinoma of the male breast: Report of a series of 88 cases. Clin. Radiol. 27, 21–25 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Leclercq, G., Heuson, J.-C., Deboel, M.-C., Mallheiem, W.H.: Estrogen receptors in breast cancer, a changing concept. Br. Med. J. 1, 185–189 (1975)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Leung, B.S., Moseley, H.S., Davenport, C.E.: Estrogen receptors in prediction of clinical responses to endocrine ablation. In: Estrogen receptors in human breast cancer. McGuire, W.L., Carbone, P.P., Vollmer, E.P. (eds.), pp. 107–129. New York: Raven Press 1975Google Scholar
  91. Li, M.C., Janelli, D.E., Kelly, E.J., Kashiwabasa, H., Kim, R.H.: Metastatic carcinoma of the male breast treated with bilateral adrenalectomy and chemotherapy. Cancer 25, 678–681 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Liechty, R.D., Davis, J., Gleysteen, J.: Cancer of the male breast: Forty cases. Cancer 20, 1617–1624 (1967)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lilienfeld, A.M.: The epidemiology of breast cancer. Cancer Res. 23, 1503–1513 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Lorenz, E. Some biologic effects of long continued irradiation. Am.J. Roentgenol. 63, 176–185 (1950)Google Scholar
  95. Lowell, D.M., Martineau, R.G., Luria, S.B.: Carcinoma of the male breast. Report of a case occurring 35 years after radiation therapy of unilateral prepubertal gynecomastia. Cancer 22, 585–586 (1968)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Luft, R., Olivecrona, H.: Hypophysectomy in man. Experiences in metastatic cancer of the breast. Cancer 8, 261–270 (1955)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Luft, R., Olivecrona, H.: Hypophysectomy in the management of neoplastic disease. Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. 33, 5–16 (1967)Google Scholar
  98. Lyall, A.: Chorioncarcinoma of the testis with gynecomastia: Report of a case with early breast carcinoma. Br. J. Surg. 34, 278 (1947)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. MacClure, J.A., Higgins, C.C.: Bilateral carcinoma of male breast after estrogen therapy. J.A.M.A. 146, 7–9 (1951)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. MacDonald, I.: Endocrine ablation in disseminated mammary carcinoma. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 115215–222 (1962)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. MacGuire, W.L., Carbone, P.P., Vollmer, E.P. (eds.): Estrogen receptors in human breast cancer. New York: Raven Press 1975Google Scholar
  102. MacKay, E.N., Sellers, A.H.: Breast cancer at the Ontario cancer clinics, 1938–1856: A statistical review. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 92, 647 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. MacKenzie, I.: Breast cancer following multiple fluoroscopies. Br. J. Cancer 19, 1–8 (1965)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Macklin, M.T.: Comparison of the number of breast cancer deaths observed in relatives of breast cancer patients, and the number expected on the basis of mortality rates. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 22, 927–951 (1959)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. MacMahon, B., Cole, P., Brown, J.: Etiology of human breast cancer: A review. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 50, 21–42 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. MacWhirter, R.: Simple mastectomy and radiotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer. Br. J. Radiol. 28, 128–139 (1955)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Marger, D., Urdameta, M., Fishe, J.J.: Breast cancer in brothers. Cancer 36, 458–461 (1975)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Maison, D.D.: Hypophysectomy in breast cancer. In: Hypophysectomy. Pearson, O.H. (ed.), p. 33. Springfield, Ill: Thomas 1957Google Scholar
  109. Mausner, J.S., Shimkin, M.B, Moss, N.H., Rosemund, G.P.: Cancer of the breast in Philadelphia hospitals 1951–1964. Cancer 23, 260–274 (1969)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. McLaughlin, J.S., Hull, H.C., Oda, F., Buxton, R.W.: Metastatic carcinoma of the male breast; remission by adrenalectomy. Ann. Surg. 162, 9 (1965)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Mettler, F.A., Jr, Hempelmann, L.H., Dutton, A.M., Pifer, J.W., Edward, M.A., Toyosha, T., Ames, V.P.: Breast neoplasms in women treated with x-rays for acute postpartum mastitis. A pilot study. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 43, 803–811 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Meyer-Laack, H.: Männliche Mammakarzinoma und ihre Beziehungen zur Gynaekomastie. Strahlentherapie 87, 67–76 (1952)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Meyskens, F.L., Torney, D.C., Neifeld, J.P.: Male breast cancer: A review. Cancer Treat. Rev. 3, 83–93 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Michels, L.G., Gold, R.H., Arndt, R.D.: Radiography of gynecomastia and other disorders of the male breast. Radiology 122, 117–122 (1977)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Miller, W.R., Forrest, A.P.M.: Oestradiol synthesis by a human carcinoma. Lancet ii, 866–869 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Moseley, H.S., Fletcher, W.S., Leung, B.S., Krippaehne, W.W.: Predictive criteria for the selection of breast cancer patients for adrenalectomy. Am. J. Surg. 128, 143–151 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Moss, N.H.: Cancer of the male breast. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 114, 937–950 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Myrden, J.A., Hiltz, J.E.: Breast cancer following multiple fluoroscopies during artificial pneumothorax treatment of pulmonary tubercolosis. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 100, 1032–1034 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Nathanson, I.: Hormonal treatment in cancer. Med. Clin. North Am. 34, 1409–1417 (1950)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Neal, M.P.: Malignant tumors of the male breast. Arch. Surg. 27, 427–465 (1933)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Neifeld, J.P., Meyskens, F., Tormey, D.C., Tavadpour, N.: The role of orchiectomy in the management of advanced male breast cancer. Cancer 37, 992–995 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Nelson, A.J., III, Montague, E.D.: Resectable localized breast cancer. The rationale for combined surgery and irradiation. J.A.M.A. 231, 189–191 (1975)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Newill, V.A.: Distribution of cancer mortality among ethnic subgroups of the white population of New York City 1953–1958. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 26, 405–417 (1961)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Nicolis, G.L., Modiinger, R.S., Gabrilove, J.L.: A study of the histopathology of human gynecomastia. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 32, 173–178 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Nicolis, G.L., Sabetghadan, R., Hsu, C.C.S., Sohval, A.R., Gabrilove, J.L.: Breast cancer after mumps orchitis. J.A.M.A. 223, 1032–1033 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Nixon, D.W.: Multiple primary cancers in separate tissues. Case report and brief review. South Med. J. 65, 305–308 (1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Nohrmann, B.A.: Cancer of the breast. Acta Radiol. (Stockh.) [Suppl. 77] (1949)Google Scholar
  128. Nords, H.J., Taylor, H.B.: Carcinoma of the male breast. Cancer 23, 1428, 1435 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. O’Grady, W.P., McDivitt, R.W.: Breast cancer in a man treated with Diethylstilbestrol. Arch. Pathol. 88, 162 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Panettière, F.J.: Cancer in the male breast. Cancer 34, 1324–1327 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Papadrianos, E., Haagensen, C.D., Cooley, E.: Cancer of the breast as a familial disease. Ann. Surg. 165, 10–19 (1967)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Paterson, R., Rüssel, M.H.: Clinical trials in malignant disease. Part III. Breast cancer: Evaluation of postoperative radiotherapy. Clin. Radiol. 10, 175–180 (1959)Google Scholar
  133. Payson, B.A., Rosh, R.: Neoplasms of the male breast. Radiology 52, 220–229 (1949)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Peck, M.E.: Malignant tumors of the male breast. Surg. Clin. North Am. 24, 1108–1125 (1944)Google Scholar
  135. Peltokallio, P., Kalima, T.V.: Malignant tumors of the male breast in Finland. A report of 51 cases. Br. J. Cancer 23, 480–487 (1969)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Pyrah, L.N., Smiddy, F.G.: Mammary cancer treated by bilateral adrenalectomy. Lancet 1, 1041–1047 (1954)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Ribeiro, G.G.: The results of diethylstilboestrol therapy for recurrent and metastatic carcinoma of the male breast. Br. J. Cancer 33, 465–467 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Rissanen, P.M.: Cancer of the male breast. Radiol. Clin. Biol. (Basel) 37, 129–140 (1968)Google Scholar
  139. Rosen, I.W., Nadel, H.I.: Roentgenographic demonstration of calcification in carcinoma of the male breast. Radiology 86, 38–40 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Rosen, P.P., Menendez-Botet, C.J., Nisselbaum, J.S.: Estrogen receptor protein in lesions of the male breast. A preliminary report. Cancer 37, 1866–1868 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Rubin, P.: Comment: Male breast cancer. J.A.M.A. 201, 534–535 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Sachs, M.D.: Carcinoma of the male breast. Radiology 37, 458–467 (1941)Google Scholar
  143. Sadoff, L., Davidson, W.: Urinary estrogen excretion in men with advanced cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 289, 863–864 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Sandison, A.T.: Male breast cancer in Klinefelter’s syndrome. Br. Med. J. 1, 521–522 (1965)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Scarff, R.W., Torloni, H.: Histological typing of breast tumors. In: International Histological Classification of Tumors, Geneva, W. H. O. 1968Google Scholar
  146. Scheike, O.: Male breast cancer. 5. Clinical manifestations in 257 cases in Denmark. Br. J. Cancer 28, 552–561 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Scheike, O.: Male breast cancer. 6. Factors including prognosis. Br. J. Cancer 30, 261–271 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Scheike, O.: Factors provoking male breast cancer. In: Risk factors in breast cancer. Stoll, B.A. (ed.), 173–192. London: Heinemann Medical Books 1976Google Scholar
  149. Scheike, O., Visfeldt, J.: Male breast cancer. 4. Gynecomastia in patients with breast cancer. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. [A] 81, 359 (1973)Google Scholar
  150. Scheike, O., Svenstrup, B, Frandsen, V.A.: Male breast cancer. 2. Metabolism of oestradiol-17β in men with breast cancer. J. Steroid. Biochem. 4, 489 (1973a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Scheike, O., Visfeldt, J., Petersen, B.: Male breast cancer. 3. Breast carcinoma in association with the Klinefelter syndrome. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. [A] 81, 352 (1973b)Google Scholar
  152. Schmitt, G., Scheffler, J.: Das Karzinom der männlichen Brustdrüse. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 96, 931–937 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Schoenberg, B.S., Greenberg, R.A., Eisenberg, H.: The occurrence of certain multiple primary cancers in females. Ann. Intern. Med. 68, 1193 (1968)Google Scholar
  154. Schonland, M., Bradshaw, E.: Cancer in the natal African and Indians. Int. J. Cancer 3, 304–316 (1968)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Schottenfeld, D.J.: Some epidemiological features of breast cancer among males. J. Chronic Dis. 16, 71 (1963)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Schottenfeld, D.J., Lilienfeld, A.M., Diamond, H.: Some observations on the epidemiology of breast cancer among males. Am. J. Public Health 53, 890 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Schottenfeld, D.J., Berg, J.: Incidence of multiple primary cancers. IV. Cancers of the female breast and genital organs. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 46, 161–170 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Schwartz, I.S., Wilens, S.L.: The formation of acinar tissue in gynecomastia. Am. J. Pathol. 43, 797 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Scowen, E.F.: Oestrogen excretion after hypophysectomy in breast cancer. In: Endocrine aspects of breast cancer. Currie, A.R. (ed.), pp. 208–218. Edinburgh, London: Livingstone 1958Google Scholar
  160. Scidmann, H.: Cancer of the breast. Statistical and epidemiological data. Cancer 24, 1355 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Shellabarger, C.J., Bond, V.P., Cronkite, E.P.: Relationship of dose of total-body 60 Co radiation to incidence of mammary neoplasia in female rats in radiation-induced cancer. IAEA., Vienna, 161–172 (1969)Google Scholar
  162. Simpson, J.S., Barson, A.J.: Breast tumours in infants and children: A 40-year review of cases at a children’s hospital. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 101, 100–102 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Sinner, W.: Karzinome der männlichen Brustdrüse. Beobachtungen an 27 Fällen. Strahlentherapie 115, 522–547 (1961)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Slack, R.W.T.: The survival rate of men with carcinoma of the breast. Br. J. Surg. 62, 963–965 (1975)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Smithers, D.W., Rigby-Jones, P., Galton, D.A.G., Payne, P.M.: Cancer of the breast. A review. Br. J. Radiol, Suppl. 6, 1–90 (1952)Google Scholar
  166. Stephensen, T.R., Gordon, H.E.: Primary carcinoma of the male breast. Arch. Surg. 99, 529–530 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Stewart, F.W.: Tumors of the breast. Atlas of tumor pathology, sect. 9, part 34. Washington, D.C.: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology 1950Google Scholar
  168. Stoll, B.A.: Endocrine therapy in malignant disease. Philadelphia: Saunders 1972Google Scholar
  169. Symmers, W.S.C.: Carcinoma of the breast in transsexual individuals after surgical and hormonal interference with the primary and secondary sex characteristics. Br. Med. J. 2, 83 (1968)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Taylor, S.G., Li, M.C., Eckles, N, Slaughter, D.P., McDonald, J.H.: Effect of surgical Addison’s disease on advanced carcinoma of the breast and prostate. Cancer 6, 997–1009 (1953)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Teasdale, C., Forbes, J.F., Baum, M.: Familial male breast cancer. Lancet 360–361 (1976)Google Scholar
  172. Thompson, E.B., Perlin, E., Tormey, D.: Steroid-binding proteins in carcinoma of the human male breast. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 65, 360–363 (1976)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Treves, N.: Castration as a therapeutic measure in cancer of the male breast. Cancer 2, 191–222 (1949)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Treves, N.: Paget’s disease of the male mamma. Cancer 7, 325–330 (1954)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Treves, N.: The treatment of cancer, especially inoperable cases, of the male breast by ablative surgery (orchiectomy, adrenalectomy and hypophysectomy) and hormone therapy (estrogens and corticosteroids). An analysis of 42 patients. Cancer 12, 820–832 (1959)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Treves, N., Holleb, A.I.: Cancer of male breast: A report of 146 cases. Cancer 8, 1239–1250 (1955)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Treves, N., Robbins, G.F., Amoroso, W.L., Jr.: Serous and serosanguineous discharge from the male nipple. Arch. Surg. 73, 319 (1956)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Triska, H.: Das Brustdrüsenkarzinom beim Manne. Mittelungsdienst G.B.K. NRWc 4, 535 (1967)Google Scholar
  179. Ulrich, P.: Testosterone (hormonal male) et son rôle possible dans le traitement de certains cancers du sein. Int. Union Cancer 4, 377 (1939)Google Scholar
  180. Upton, A.C., Kimball, A.W., Furth, J., Christenberry, K.W., Benedict, W.H.: Some delayed effects of atom-bomb radiations in mice. Cancer Res. 20, 1–60 (1960)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Vanderbilt, P.C., Warren, S.E.: Forty year experience with carcinoma of the male breast. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 133, 629–633 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Veronesi, U.: Surgical treatment of primary breast cancer according to disease extent. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 12, Breast cancer 19 (1977)Google Scholar
  183. Visfeldt, J., Scheike, O.: Male breast cancer. I. Histologic typing and grading of 187 danish cases. Cancer 32, 985–990 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Wainwright, J.M.: Carcinoma of the male breast. Arch. Surg. 14, 836–859 (1927)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Walach, N., Hochman, A.: Male breast cancer. Oncology 29, 181–189 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Wanebo, C.K., Johnson, K.G., Sato, K., Thorslund, T.W.: Breast cancer after exposure to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. N. Engl. J. Med. 279: 667–671 (1968)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Wetchler, B.B, Futterman, S., Glatstein, N, Simon, B.: Carcinoma of male breast. N.Y. State J. Med. 75/8 1226–1227 (1975)Google Scholar
  188. Williams, I.G.: Carcinoma of the male breast. Lancet 2, 701 (1942)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Williams, W.R.: Cancer of the male breast, based on the records of one hundred cases; with remarks. Lancet 2, 261 (1889)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Witliff, J.L.: Specific receptors of the steroid hormones in breast cancer. Semin. Oncol. 5, 109–118 (1974)Google Scholar
  191. Witliff, J.L.: Steroid-binding proteins in normal and neoplastic mammary cells. In: Methods in cancer research. Bush, H. (ed.), Vol. XI, p. 293. New York: Academic Press 1975Google Scholar
  192. Witliff, J.L.: Estrogen receptors and hormone dependency in human breast cancer. In: Recent results in cancer research 57: Breast Cancer. Arneault, G.St., Band, P., Israel, L. (eds.), Chapt. 7, pp. 59–77. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1976Google Scholar
  193. Yogore, M.G., Sahgal, S.: Small cell carcinoma of the male breast. Cancer 39, 1748–1751 (1977)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Zumoff, B., Fischmann, J., Cassouto, J., Hellman, L., Gallagher, T.F.: Estradiol transformation in men with breast cancer. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 26, 960–966 (1966)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Huys
  • F. De Laender

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations