The normal disposition and growth of the bowel are the result of complex processes during embryonic and fetal life. Derangements in these processes lead to a large number of anomalies which may stem from any of the following: (1) abnormalities of migration due to disturbances in gut rotation and fixation, and in the development of the mesenteries; (2) abnormalities of growth—redundancies; (3) associated anomalies in contiguous organs, e.g. the diaphragm; (4) abnormalities of lumen formation — atresias and duplications; and (5) abnormalities of innervation. The anomalies may be isolated, or they may coexist either with one another, or with derangements in other organs.


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