Nervous Activities of the Heart in Crustacea

  • S. Hagiwara
Part of the Ergebnisse der Biologie / Advances in Biology book series (ERGBIOL, volume 24)


Crustacean cardiac rhythms, unlike those of vertebrates, do not originate in the heart muscle itself. Ganglion cells are normally located in the dorsal wall of the heart and the excitation for the heart beat starts at the ganglion. A neurogenic origin of the heart beat, however, was first demonstrated in Limulus by Carlson (1904). He applied a warm test tube on various parts of the heart muscle and ganglion and found that the cardiac rhythm was accelerated only when the tube was placed on a certain part of the ganglion (the fourth and fifth segments of the ganglion). If the ganglion was removed from the heart the beat stopped. These findings show that the cardiac rhythm arises not only at the cardiac ganglion but also at certain neurons in the ganglion.


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© Springer-Verlag oHG. Berlin · Göttingen · Heidelberg 1961

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Hagiwara
    • 1
  1. 1.Brain Research Institute and Departments of Zoology and Anatomy, School of MedicineUniversity of California at Los AngelesLos Angeles 24USA

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