It may be plausibly argued that the biological study of respiration dates from those prehistoric times when man first apprehended the existence in the human race, and also in the animals he hunted or domesticated, of a link between living and breathing. There are frequent allusions to this link in the most ancient literature, for example in the books of our bible and the oldest Greek writings. Singer (1931) remarks on the use in the Iliad of the word psyche in the sense of breath, and points out that in several languages the word for breath eventually came to mean life. A quotation will illustrate Singer’s thoughts on this change of meaning. “Breathing is the most obvious sign of life, and when man ceases to breath we know that he is dead. So from breath the word psyche came to mean life, then the principle of life, and then the soul or again the mind. It is interesting to observe that in other ancient languages, as for instance Hebrew and Latin, the word for soul or life has gone through exactly the same history, being gradually changed from its original meaning of breath.”


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bayliss, W. M.: Principles of general physiology. London 1927.Google Scholar
  2. Blackman, F. F.: Incipient vitality. New Phytologist 5, 22–34 (1906).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blackman, F. F.: Analytic studies in plant respiration. Cambridge 1954.Google Scholar
  4. Bernard, C.: Leçons sur les phénomènes de la vie. Paris 1878.Google Scholar
  5. Bodnár, J.: Über die Zymase und Carboxylase der Kartoffel und Zuckerrübe. Biochem. Z. 73, 193–210 (1916).Google Scholar
  6. Bonner, J.: Plant biochemistry. New York 1950.Google Scholar
  7. Chevillard, L., F. Hamon, A. Mayer et al. Plantefol: Action de l’oxygène libre sur la respiration des tissus végétaux aériens. I. Influence de la tension de l’oxygène. Ann. de Physiol. 6, 464–505 (1930a).Google Scholar
  8. Chevillard, L., F. Hamon, A. Mayer et al. Action de l’oxygène libre sur la respiration des tissues végétaux aériens. III. Echanges gaseux aux tensions décroissantes d’oxygène: respiration, fermentation et oxydations complémentaires. Ann. de Physiol. 6, 549–583 (1930b).Google Scholar
  9. Chevillard, L., A. Mayer et L. Plantefol: Action de l’oxygène libre sur la respiration des tissus végétaux aériens. II. Comparison entre la respiration et les échanges gazeux en l’absence d’oxygène. Ann. de Physiol. 6, 506–548 (1930c).Google Scholar
  10. Coulter, J. M., C. R. Barnes and H. C. Cowles: A textbook of botany, Vol. I. Morphology and physiology. New York 1910.Google Scholar
  11. Czapek, F.: Chemical phenomena in life. London and New York 1911.Google Scholar
  12. Czapek, F.: Biochemie der Pflanzen, Bd. 3. Jena: Gustav Fischer 1921.Google Scholar
  13. Decandolle, A. P., and K. Sprengel: Elements of the philosophy of plants. Edinburgh 1821.Google Scholar
  14. Dtjchartre, P.: Eléments de botanique. Paris 1867.Google Scholar
  15. Fruton, J. S., and S. Simmonds: General biochemistry. New York and London 1953.Google Scholar
  16. Garreau, M.: De la respiration chez les plantes. Ann. des Sci. natur., Ser. III 15, 5–36 (1851a).Google Scholar
  17. Garreau, M.: Nouvelles recherches sur la respiration des plantes. Ann. des Sci. natur., Ser. III 16, 271–292 (1851b).Google Scholar
  18. Godlewski, M. E., and F. Polzeniusz: Über die intramoleculare Athmung von in Wasser gebrachten Samen und über die dabei stattfindende Alkoholbildung. Bull. Acad. Sci. Cracow 1901, 227–276. Ref. Bot. Zbl. 89, 713 (1902).Google Scholar
  19. Harden, A.: Alcoholic fermentation. London 1923.Google Scholar
  20. Helmholtz, H. v.: On the interaction of natural forces. (Lecture delivered in 1854, published in Popular Lectures on Scientific Subjects.) London 1893.Google Scholar
  21. Hopkins, F. G.: Some chemical aspects of life. Report of the Brit. Assoc, for the Adv. of Sci. 1933, 1–24.Google Scholar
  22. Huxley, T. H.: Discourses biological and geological. London 1894.Google Scholar
  23. Ingenhousz, J.: Experiments upon vegetables. London 1779.Google Scholar
  24. James, W.O.: Plant respiration. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1953.Google Scholar
  25. Kostytschew, S.: Über den Vorgang der Zuckeroxydation bei der Pflanzenatmung. Z. physiol. Chem. 67, 116 (1910).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kostytschew, S.: Pflanzenatmung. Berlin: Springer 1924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lechartier, G., et F. Bellamy: De la fermentation des fruits. C. r. Acad. Sci. Paris 69, 1203–1206 (1869); 79, 949 (1874).Google Scholar
  28. Liebig, J.: Chemistry in its applications to agriculture and physiology. London 1843.Google Scholar
  29. Mohl, H. v.: Die vegetabilische Zelle. In: Handwörterbuch der Physiologie mit Rücksicht auf physiologische Pathologie, Bd. 4, S. 167–310. 1853.Google Scholar
  30. Moyse, A.: Respiration et métabolisme azoté. Paris: Hermann & Cie. 1950a.Google Scholar
  31. Moyse, A.: Les oxydations respiratoires et la respiration des plantes. Ann. des Sci. natur. Bot., Sér. 10e, 11, 29–52 (1950b).Google Scholar
  32. Onslow, M. W.: The principles of plant biochemistry. Cambridge 1931.Google Scholar
  33. Oppenheimer, C. (unter Mitarbeit von R.Kuhn): Lehrbuch der Enzyme. Leipzig 1927.Google Scholar
  34. Palladin, V. I.: Plant physiology. Edited by B.E.Livingston. Philadelphia 1922.Google Scholar
  35. Pasteur, L.: Note sur le production de l’alcool par les fruits. C. r. Acad. Sci. Paris 75, 1054 (1872).Google Scholar
  36. Pfeffer, W.: The physiology of plants, Vol. I. Translated by A. J.Ewart. Oxford 1900.Google Scholar
  37. Plantefol, L.: La respiration chez les levures. Rev. Cyt. et Gytophysiol. végét. 1, 1–18 (1934).Google Scholar
  38. Plantefol, L.: Respiration et fermentation. Trav. Lab. E.N.S. (Paris) 1, 1–34 (1944).Google Scholar
  39. Priestley, J.: Experiments and observations on different kinds of air, and other branches of natural philosophy connected with the subject, Vols. I, II and III. Birmingham 1790.Google Scholar
  40. Rabinowitch, E. G.: Photosynthesis and related processes, Vol. I. New York 1945.Google Scholar
  41. Ruhland, W.: Beiträge zur Physiologie der Knallgasbakterien. Jb. wiss. Bot. 63, 321–389 (1924).Google Scholar
  42. Sachs, J. v.: Handbuch der Experimentalphysiologie der Pflanzen. Leipzig 1865.Google Scholar
  43. Sachs, J. v.: Lectures on the physiology of plants. Translated by Marshall Ward. Oxford 1887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sachs, J. v.: History of botany. Translated by Garnsey and Balfour. Oxford 1906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sachs, J. v.: History of botany. Translated by Garnsey and Balfour. Oxford 1906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Senebier, J.: Physiologie végétale. Genève 1800.Google Scholar
  47. Singer, C.: A short history of biology. London 1931.Google Scholar
  48. Stephenson, M.: Bacterial metabolism, 2nd ed. London 1939.Google Scholar
  49. Stiles, W., and W. Leach: Respiration in plants, 3rd ed. London: Methuen 1952.Google Scholar
  50. Stoklasa, J.: Der Kohlenhydrat-umsatz der Pflanzenzelle. Ber. dtsch. bot. Ges. 44, 248–262 (1926).Google Scholar
  51. Stoklasa,J., u. F. Czerny: Isolierung des die anaerobe Atmung der Zelle der höher organisierten Pflanzen und Tiere bewirkenden Enzyms. Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 36, 622–634 (1933).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Takahashi, T.: On the alcohol production in Phanerogams. Imp. Univ. Jap. Coll. Agricult. 5, 243 (1902/03).Google Scholar
  53. Thomas, M.: Physiological studies on acid metabolism in green plants. I. CO2 fixation and CO2 liberation in Crassulacean acid metabolism. New Phyto-logist 48, 390–420 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Thomas, M.: The anatomy of metabolism in higher plants: total metabolism, metabolic processes and partial reactions. Adv. Sci. 9, 219–235 (1952).Google Scholar
  55. Thomas, M., S.L. Ranson and J.A. Richardson: Plant physiology. London 1956.Google Scholar
  56. Traube, M.: Beobachtungen über die Respiration der Pflanzen. Mber. kgl.-preuß. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1859, 83–94.Google Scholar
  57. Turner, J. S.: Respiration. The Pasteur effect in plants. Annual Rev. Plant Physiol. 2, 145–168 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ulrich, R.: La vie des fruits. Paris 1952.Google Scholar
  59. Wetzel, K.: Die chemischen Vorgänge beim biologischen Kohlenhydratabbau. I. Die einleitenden Prozesse der biologischen Zuckerspaltung. Erg. Biol. 7, 404–548 (1931).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wetzel, K.: Die chemischen Vorgänge beim biologischen Kohlenhydratabbau. II. Die oxydoreduktive Phase. Erg. Biol. 10, 323–565 (1934).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wolf, J.: Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Säurestoffwechsels sukkulenter Crassulaceen. VI. Neuere Vorstellungen vom Chemismus des Säurestoffwechsels. Planta (Berl.) 37, 510–534 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1960

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meirion Thomas

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations