Clonal Dominance: Presentation of Antigenic Subsites is the Determining Factor

  • Dietmar G. Braun
  • Wolfgang Schalch
  • J. Keith Wright
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Biomathematics book series (LNBM, volume 32)


The difficulty in comprehending the immune system resides in the finding that standard immune responses are — at the level of the bone marrow derived B lymphocyte where antibody synthesis and secretion occur — the sum of many clonal responses, both specific and cross-reactive. Therefore, any study concerned with the expression of clones as well as with its products requires the separation of clones. This aim may be approached in several ways: a) the generation of antibody responses with restricted heterogeneity (1), b) the transfer of limited cell numbers from suitably primed animals into syngeneic X-radiated hosts (2), and c) the production of hybridomas (3). Finally, poly-clonal activation of bone marrow derived cells by mitogens may also be used in systems working with limiting cell numbers to evaluate the frequency of monoclonal precursor cells by their products (4).


Antibody Response Affinity Antibody Antibody Population High Affinity Antibody Myeloma Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Krause, R.M. The search for antibodies with molecular uniformity. Adv. Immunol. 12: 1 (1970).MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Askonas, B.A., Williamson, A.R., and Wright, B.E.G. Selection of single antibody-forming cell clone and its propagation in syngeneic mice. Proc.Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 67: 1398 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Köhler, G., and Milstein, C. Derivation of specific antigen-producing tissue culture and tumor lines by cell fusion. Eur. J. Immunol. 6: 511 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Eichmann, K., Ccutinho, A., and Melchers, F. Absolute frequencies of lipopolysaccharide-reactive B cells producing A5A idiotype in unprimed, streptococcal A carbohydrate-primed, anti-A5A idiotype-sensitized and anti-A5A idiotype-suppressed A/J mice. J. Exp. Med. 146; 1436 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Braun, D.G., Huser, H., and Riesen, W.F. Variability patterns of anti-polysaccharide antibodies. In The Generation of Antibody Diversity. A New Look; Cunningham, A.J. (ed.), Academic Press 1976, p. 31.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Siskind, G.W., and Benacerraf, B. Cell selection by antigen in the immune response. Adv. Immunol. 10: 1 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kimball, J.W. Maturation of the immune response to type III pneumococcal polysaccharide. Immunochemistry 9: 1169 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Briles, D.E., and Davie, J.M. Clonal dominance. I. Restricted nature of the IgM antibody response to group A streptococcal carbohydrate in mice. J.Exp.Med. 141: 1291 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cramer, M., and Braun D.G. Immunological memory: stable IgG patterns determine in vivo responsiveness at the clonal level. Scand. J. Immunol. 4: 63 (1975).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Braun, D.G., Laudien, D., Read, S.E., and Riesen, W.F. Persistent clonotypes associated with the group A streptococcal polysaccharide response in man. Int. Arch. Allergy, 1979, in press.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schalch, W., Wright, J.K., Rodkey, L.S., and Braun, D.G. Clonal dominance of low affinity antibodies in rabbit hyperimmune anti-strep-tococcal group A-variant polysaccharide antisera. Eur. J. Immunol., 1979, in press.Google Scholar
  12. 2.
    Schalch, W., Wright, J.K. Rodkey, L.S., and Braun, D.G. Distinct functions of monoclonal IgG antibody depend on antigen site specificities. J.Exp. Med., 1979 in press.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Coligan, J.E., Schnute, W.C., and Kindt, T.J. Immunochemical and chemical studies on streptoccal group-specific carbohydrates. J. Immunol. 114: 1654 (1975).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schalch, W., Hochstrasser, W., and Braun D.G. Koenigs-Knorr synthesis of part of the immunodeterminant group in a streptococcal polysaccharide: 2-O-α-L-rhamnosyl-L-rhamnopyranose. Tetrahedron Lett. 43:4153 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Braun, D.G., and Jaton, J.-C. Homogeneous antibodies: induction and value as probe for the antibody problem. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 66: 29 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cramer, M., and Braun, D.G. Genetics of restricted antibodies to streptococcal group polysaccharides in mice: II. The Ir-A-CHO gene determines antibody levels and regulatory genes influence the restriction of the response. Eur. J. Immunol. 5: 823 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Eichmann, K. Braun, D.G., and Krause, R.M. Influence of genetic factors on the magnitude and the heterogeneity of the immune response in the rabbit. J. Exp. Med. 134: 48 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Willcox, H.N.A., and Marsh, D.G. Genetic regulation of antibody heterogeneity: its possible significance in human allergy. Immunogenetics 6: 209 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Krause, R.M., and McCarty, M. Studies on the chemical structure of the streptococcal cell wall. II. The composition of group C cell walls and chemical basis for serological specificity of the carbohydrate moiety. J. Exp. Med. 115: 49 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lloyd, E.A., and Doherty, D.G. 2,4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazones of some hexoses and pentoses. J.Am. Chem. Soc. 74: 4214 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Braun, D.G., Kjems, E. and Cramer, M. A rabbit family of restricted high responders to the streptococcal group A-variant polysaccharide. Selective breeding narrows the isoelectric focusing spectra of dominant clones. J.Exp. Med. 138: 645 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cisar, J., Kabat, E.A., Dorner, M.M., and Liao, J. Binding properties of immunoglobulin combining sites specific for terminal or nonterminal antigenic determinants in dextran. J. Exp. Med. 142: 4 35 (1975).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Braun, D.G. Quintans, J., Luzzati, A., Lefkovits, I., and Read, S.E. Antibody response of rabbit blood lymphocytes in vitro. Kinetics, clone size, and clonotype analysis in response to streptococcal group polysaccharide antigens. J. Exp. Med. 143: 360 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Braun, D.G., Eichmann, K., and Krause, R.M. Rabbit antibodies to streptococcal carbohydrates. Influence of primary and secondary immunization and of possible genetic factors on the antibody response. J. Exp. Med. 129: 809 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rodkey, L.S., Schalch, W., and Braun, D.G. Lytic and non-lytic activity associated with clonally distinct IgG antibodies. Immunochemistry, 1979 in press.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Romans, D.G., Tilley, C., Crooleston, M.C., Falk, R.E., and Dorrin-ton, K.J. Conversion of incomplete antibodies to direct agglutinins by mild reduction: Evidence for segmental flexibility within the Fc-fragment of immunoglobulin G. Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74: 2531 (1977).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dietmar G. Braun
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wolfgang Schalch
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. Keith Wright
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Basel Institute for ImmunologyBaselSwitzerland
  2. 2.Biocenter of the University of BaselBaselSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations