Common Bile Duct Exploration via Laparoscopic Choledochotomy
Failed transcystic extraction if CBD diameter is > 8 mm.
Large single or multiple stones (>1.0 cm), providing the load is not excessive (see below).
Unsuccessful attempts at endoscopic stone extraction for large/occluding stones.
Intrahepatic stones, which are inaccessible via a transcystic approach.
KeywordsCommon Bile Duct Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Cystic Duct Common Duct Common Bile Duct Exploration
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