Assessment of the Dependence Liability of Opiates and Sedative-Hypnotics
Assessment of analgesics is based upon the demonstration of morphine-like subjective effects and physical dependence as demonstrated in substitution tests or direct addiction tests. Similar relative potencies in comparison to morphine for scales measuring subjective effects, miosis, suppression of abstinence and relief of pathological pain are sufficient evidence for classification as a morphine-like agent. Recently the use of the Morphine-Benzedrine Group (MBG) scale has improved the methods for assessing morphine-like subjective effects. Substitution studies conducted at various levels of morphine dependence have demonstrated the ability to assess for levels of morphine-like intrinsic activity. Assessing sedative-hypnotic agents for physical dependence capacity by substitution or direct addiction tests in man is not practical. It appears that from a comparison of secobarbital and pentobarbital, single doses of sedative-hypnotics can be assayed for their ability to facilitate post-rotatory nystagmus and produce scores on scales which measure barbiturate-like subjective effects.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Andrews, H. L., Himmelsbach, C. K.: Relation of the intensity of the morphine abstinence syndrome to dosage. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 81, 288–293 (1944).Google Scholar
- Fraser, H. F., Isbell, H.: Human pharmacology and addiction liabilities of phenazocine and levophenacylmorphan. Bull. Narcot. 12, 15–23 (1960).Google Scholar
- Fraser, H. F., Eisenman, A. J., Wikler, A., Pescor, F. T.: Chronic barbiturate intoxication. Arch. intern. Med. 94, 34–41 (1954).Google Scholar
- Himmelsbach, C. K.: Clinical studies of drug addiction. II. “Rossium” treatment of drug addiction. Pub. Hlth. Rep. Suppl. 125. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office 1937.Google Scholar
- Himmelsbach, C. K.: Further studies of the addiction liability of demerol (1-methyl-4-phenyl-piperidine-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester hydrochloride). J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 79, 5–9 (1943).Google Scholar
- Himmelsbach, C. K.: Studies of the addiction liability of “demerol.” (D-140). J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 75, 64–68 (1942).Google Scholar
- Isbell, H., Altschul, S., Kornetsky, C. H., Eisenman, A. J., Flanary, H. G., Fraser, H. F.: Chronic barbiturate intoxication: An experimental study. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 64, 1–28 (1950).Google Scholar
- Role, L., Himmelsbach, C. K.: Clinical studies of drug addiction. III. A critical review of the withdrawal treatments with method of evaluating abstinence syndromes. Amer. J. Psychiat. 94, 759–799 (1938).Google Scholar
- Martin, W. R.: Assessment of the dependence-producing potentiality of narcotic analgesics. In: Radouco-Thomas, C., Lasagna, L. (Eds.): International Encyclopedia of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Chap. 9, Sect. 6, Vol. I. Glasgow: Pergamon Press 1966.Google Scholar
- Martin, W. R., Fraser, H. F., Isbell, H.: A comparison of the effects of intramuscularly administered pentobarbital sodium and morphine sulfate in man (Abstract). Fed. Proc. 21, 326 (1962).Google Scholar
- Small, L. F., Eddy, N. B., Mosettig, E., Himmelsbach, C. K.: Studies on drug addiction with special reference to the chemical structure of opium derivatives and allied synthetic substances and their physiological action. Pub. Hlth. Rep., Suppl. 138. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office 1938.Google Scholar