Exfoliative Cytology of the Esophagus

  • F. Vilardell
Part of the Handbuch der inneren Medizin book series (INNEREN, volume 3)


Probably Lionel Beale (1867) should be credited with the first reference in the medical literature on the use of cytological methods for the diagnosis of cancer of the digestive system. In his book „The Microscope and its Applica tion in Clinical Medicine“, Beale published several drawings of gastric and esophageal cells which he thought to be malignant. The first clinical paper in which cancer cells, obtained by a washing procedure from patients with gastric and esophageal cancer, were described according to modern criteria was published by Marini in 1909. In spite of the importance of these observations the cytological method never became popular, perhaps because of the rapid expansion of roentgenology as a practical diagnostic procedure. The publications by Papanicolaou (1942-1943) renewed the interest of several gastroenterologists for cytological methods, and in the last few years several books referring to gastrointestinal cytodiagnosis have been published (Papanicolaou, 1954; Bruinsma, 1957; Schade, 1960; Vilardell, 1962; Graham, 1963; Nieburgs, 1967; Gibbs, 1968; Koss and Durfee, 1968; Henning and Witte, 1968).


Esophageal Cancer Esophageal Carcinoma Cytologic Study Pernicious Anemia Cytologic Diagnosis 
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© Springer-Verlag, Berlin · Heidelberg 1974

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  • F. Vilardell

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