OPTIBUS: A Scheduling Package

  • Avishai Ceder
  • Bjoern Fjornes
  • Helman I. Stern
Part of the Lecture Note in Economics Mathematical Systems book series (LNE, volume 308)


Any transit process planning includes four basic components performed in sequence: (1) network route design; (2) setting timetables; (3) scheduling vehicles to trips; and (4) assignment of drivers. It is desirable for all components to be planned simultaneously to exploit the system’s capability to the greatest extent and to maximize the systems’s productivity and efficiency. However, this planning process is extremely cumbersome and complex, with the outcome of one fed as an input to the next component. The overview of this planning process is shown in Figure 1 with an emphasis on the three scheduling components to be adressed in this paper. The second component in Figure 1 is aimed to meet the general public transportation demand. The demand varies during the hours of the day, of the week, from one season to another and even from one year to another. This demand reflects the business, industrial, cultural, educational, social and recreational transportation needs of the community. It is the purpose of this component to set appropriate timetables for each transit route to meet the variation in the public demand. Determination of timetables is performed on the basis of passenger counts and must comply with service frequency constraints.


Crew Schedule Fleet Size Deficit Function Trip Chain Vehicle Schedule 
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    Ceder, A.: Bus Frequency Determination Using Passenger Count Data. Transportation Research 18A (1984), 439–453Google Scholar
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    Ceder, A.; Stern, H. I.: Deficit Function Bus Scheduling with Deadheading Trip Insertion for Fleet Size Reduction. Transportation Science 15 (1981), 338–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Ceder, A.; Stern, H. I.: The Variable Trip Procedure Used in the AUTOBUS Vehicle Scheduler. Computer Scheduling of Public Transport 2. J.M. Rousseau, ed., North-Holland; Amsterdam, New York, Oxford 1985, 371–390Google Scholar
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    Stern, H. I.; Ceder, A.: An Improved Lower Bound to the Minimum Fleet Size Problem. Transportation Science 17 (1983), 471–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Avishai Ceder
    • 1
  • Bjoern Fjornes
    • 2
  • Helman I. Stern
    • 3
  1. 1.Technion — Israel Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael
  2. 2.Befag Transport AGOberwilSwitzerland
  3. 3.Industrial & Management Dept.Ben-Gurion UniversityBeershevaIsrael

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