Physiological and Pharmacological Aspects of the Cerebral Circulation with Special Regard to Mental Activity and to Dementia

  • O. B. Paulson
Conference paper
Part of the Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für innere Medizin book series (VDGINNERE, volume 83)

Zusammenfassung

Since Kety and Schmidt [1] about three decades ago introduced the nitrous oxide inhalation technique for the measurement of the cerebral blood flow in man, there has been a tremendous increase in our knowledge about the cerebral circulation. The resolution of the flow measurements became much increased with the introduction of the intraarterial injection method by Lassen and Ingvar [2] which uses a radioactive inert gas as indicator and which subsequently was adapted in man [3]. This method allows the determination of the regional cerebral blood flow simultaneously within multiple areas of the brain. The present paper reviews some of the basic physiological mechanism of importance for the regulation of the cerebral blood flow including recent years’ studies of regional cerebral blood flow changes during various forms for metal activity. Subsequently flow changes in schizophrenia and dementia as well as pharmacological aspects are commented on.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kety, S. S., Schmidt, C. F.: The nitrous oxide method for the quantitative determination of cerebral blood flow in man: Theory, procedure and normal values. J. clin. Invest. 27, 476–483 (1948).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lassen, N. A., Ingvar, D. H.: The blood flow of the cerebral cortex determined by radioactive 85Krypton. Experientia (Basel) 17, 42–43 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lassen, N. A., Høedt-Rasmussen, K., Sørensen, S. C, Skinhøj, E., Cronqvist, S., Bodforss, B., Ingvar, D. H.: Regional cerebral blood flow in man determined by Krypton. Neurology (Minneap.) 13, 719–727 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Olesen, J.: Quantitative evaluation of normal and pathologic cerebral blood flow regulation to perfusion pressure. Changes in man. Arch. Neurol. (Chic.) 28, 143–149 (1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Strandgaard, S., Olesen, J., Skinhøj, E., Lassen, N. A.: Autoregulation of brain circulation in severe arterial hypertension. Brit. med. J. 1, 507–510 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Olesen, J., Paulson, O. B., Lassen, N. A.: Regional cerebral blood flow in man determined by the initial slope of the clearance of intraarterially injected 133Xe. Stroke 2, 519–540 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Olesen, J.: Cerebral blood flow. Methods for measurement, regulation, effects of drugs and changes in diseases. Acta neurol. scand. 50 (Suppl. 57).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Paulson, O. B., Sharbrough, F. W.: Physiological and pathophysiological relationship between the electroencephalogram and the regional cerebral blood flow. Acta neurol. scand. 50, 194–220.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sokoloff, L.: Local cerebral circulation at rest and during altered cerebral activity induced by anesthesia or visual stimulation. In: Regional neurochemistry (eds. S. S. Kety, J. Elkes), pp. 107–117. New York: Pergamon 1961.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ingvar, D. H., Risberg, J.: Increase of regional cerebral blood flow during mental effort in normals and in patients with focal brain disorders. Exp. Brain Res. 3, 195–211 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Olesen, J.: Contralateral focal increase of cerebral blood flow in man during arm work. Brain 94, 635–646 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roland, P. E., Larsen, B.: Focal increase of cerebral blood flow during stereognostic testing in man. Arch. Neurol. (Chic.) 33, 551–58 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Larsen, B., Skinhøj, E., Endo, H.: Localization of speech functions as revealed by regional cerebral blood flow measurements with specially reference to the role of the minor hemisphere. Observations in normals and in patients with aphasia. Presented at the 8th Salzburg Conference on Cerebral Vascular Diseases. September 1976.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ingvar, D. H.: Patterns of brain activity revealed by measurement of regional cerebral blood flow. In: Brain work (eds. D. H. Ingvar, N. A. Lassen), pp. 397–413. Copenhagen: Munksgaard and New York: Academic Press 1975.Google Scholar
  15. Ingvar, D. H., Franzén, G.: Distribution of cerebral activity in chronic schizophrenia. Lancet 1974 II, 1484–1486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Simard, D., Olesen, J., Paulson, O. B., Lassen, N. A., Skinhøj, E.: Regional cerebral blood flow and its regulation in dementia. Brain 94, 273–288 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lassen, N. A., Munck, O., Tottey, E. R.: Mental function and cerebral oxygen consumption in organic dementia. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 77, 126–133 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hagberg, B., Ingvar, D. H.: Cognitive reduction in presenile dementia related to regional abnormalities of the cerebral blood flow. Brit. J. Psychiat. 128, 209–222 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Skinhøj, E., Paulson, B. B.: The mechanism of action of aminophylline upon cerebral vascular disorders. Acta neurol. scand. 46, 129–140 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gottstein, U., Paulson, o. B.: The effect of intracarotid aminophylline infusion on the cerebral circulation. Stroke 3, 560–565 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Olesen, J., Paulson, O. B.: The effect of intraarterial papaverine on the regional cerebral blood flow in patients with stroke or intracranial tumor. Stroke 2, 148–159 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Paulson, O. B.: Cerebral apoplexy (stroke): Pathogenesis, pathophysiology and therapy as illustrated by regional blood flow measurements in the brain. Stroke 2, 327–360 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. B. Paulson
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of NeurologyRigshospitaletCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations