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EJB Reviews pp 55-74 | Cite as

Signal recognition particle (SRP), a ubiquitous initiator of protein translocation

  • Henrich Lütcke
Part of the European Journal of Biochemistry book series (EJB REVIEWS, volume 1995)

Abstract

In higher eukaryotes, most secretory and membrane proteins are synthesised by ribosomes which are attached to the membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). This allows the proteins to be translocated across that membrane already during their synthesis. The ribosomes are directed to the RER membrane by a cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particle, the signal recognition particle (SRP). SRP fulfills its task by virtue of three distinguishable activities: the binding of a signal sequence which, being part of the nascent polypeptide to be translocated, is exposed on the surface of a translating ribosome; the retardation of any further elongation; and the SRP-receptor-mediated binding of the complex of ribosome, nascent polypetide and SRP to the RER membrane which results in the detachment of SRP from the signal sequence and the ribosome and the insertion of the nascent polypeptide into the membrane. Evidence is accumulating that SRP is not restricted to eukaryotes: SRP-related particles and SRP-receptor-related molecules are found ubiquitously and may function in protein translocation in every living organism.

Keywords

Signal recognition particle (SRP) protein translocation ribonucleoprotein particle signal­sequence-specific chaperone GTPases 

Abbreviations

SRP

signal recognition particle

SR

SRP receptor

RER

rough endoplasmic reticulum

STEM

scanning transmission electron microscopy

Pol III

RNA polymerase III

MalNEt

N-ethylmaleimide

NAC

nascent-polypeptide-associated complex

GNRP

guanine-nucleotide release factor

GAP

GTPase-activating protein

GDI

guanine-nucleotide dissociation inhibitor

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© FEBS 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henrich Lütcke
    • 1
  1. 1.Zentrum für Molekulare Biologie Heidelberg (ZMBH)HeidelbergGermany

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