Advertisement

Second Primary Tumors in Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer

  • N. de Vries
Part of the Recent Results in Cancer Research book series (RECENTCANCER, volume 134)

Abstract

Second primary tumors constitute a major problem in patients with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck. They occur in 15%–30% of cases, mainly in the upper aerodigestive tract (Gluckman et al. 1980; Hordijk and de Jong 1983; de Vries 1990). The majority of second primary tumors occur more than half a year after the index tumor and are called “metachronous”; when they occur within 6 months, they are called “synchronous.” They occur more often in men than in women and usually have a bad prognosis, because they often occur at bad sites (lung/esophagus) or in already treated areas, rendering curative treatment difficult or impossible. In certain early stage diseases such as T1 NO laryngeal cancer, the risk of death from a later lung cancer is greater than from the primary disease. For this reason, second primary tumors are regarded as the “overshadowing treat” for early stage head and neck cancer patients (Lippman and Hong 1989). Second tumors are one of the main reasons that despite many advances in the treatment of head and neck cancer (e. g., in reconstructive surgery or combined treatment modalities), long-term survival has only marginally increased in the past decades. Interest in the phenomenon has increased, and during the last 10 years, much has become known about their etiology, pathogenesis, frequency, and predilection sites. Research on the value of screening and (chemo)prevention has taken place and is still in progress.

Keywords

Neck Cancer Laryngeal Cancer Aerodigestive Tract Neck Cancer Patient Oropharyngeal Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Atkins JP, Keane WM, Young KA, Rowe LD (1984) Value of panendoscopy in determination of second primary cancer. A study of 451 cases of head and neck cancer. Arch Otolaryngol 110: 533–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bendich L, Langseth H (1989) Safety of vitamin A. Am J Clin Nutr 49: 358–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Berg JW, Schottenfeld D, Ritter F (1970) Incidence of multiple primary cancer: 3. Cancers of the respiratory and upper digestive system as multiple primary cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst 44: 263–274Google Scholar
  4. Bichler E, Daxenbichler G (1982) Retinoic acid-binding protein in human squamous cell carcinomas of the ORL region. Cancer 49: 619–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Black RJ, Gluckman JL, Shumrick DA (1983) Multiple primary tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract. Clin Otolaryngol 8: 277–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boysen M, Natvig K, Winther FO, Tausjo J (1985) Value of routine follow-up in patients treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. J Otolaryngol 14: 211–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Byers T (1988) Diet and cancer: any progress in the interim? Cancer 62: 1713–1724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Byers T, Vena J, Mettlin C, Swansons M, Graham S (1984) Dietary vitamin A and lung cancer risk: an analysis by histologic subtypes. Am J Epidemiol 120: 769–776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC (1987) Diet and lung cancer: a review of the epidemiologic evidence in humans. Arch Intern Med 147: 157–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Copper MP, Braakhuis BJM, Vries N de, Dongen van GAMS, Nauta JP, Snow GB (1993) A panel of biomarkers of carcinogenesis of the upper aerodigestive tract as potential intermediate endpoints in chemoprevention trials. Cancer 71: 825–890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cotgreave IA, Grafstrom RC, Moldeus P (1986) Modulation of pneumotoxicity by cellular glutathione and precursors. Bull Eur Physiolpathol Respir [Suppl] 22: 2635–2665Google Scholar
  12. De Flora S (1984) Detoxification of genotoxic compounds as a threshold mechanism limiting their carcinogenicity. Toxicol Pathol 12: 337–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Flora S, Bennicelli C, Zanacchi P et al. (1984) In vitro effects of N-acetylcysteine on the mutagenicity of direct acting compounds and procarcinogens. Carcinogenesis 5: 505–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. De Flora S, Astengo M, Serra D, Benicelli C (1986) Prevention of induced lung tumours in mice by dietary N-acetylcysteine. Cancer Lett 32: 235–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Flora S, Benicelli C, Caimalano R (1989) Inhibition of mutagenesis with Nacetylcysteine (NAC). In: Cerutti PA (ed) Anticarcinogenesis and radiation protection, p 373. Plenum, MilanoGoogle Scholar
  16. De Vries N (1990) The magnitude of the problem. In: de Vries N, Gluckman JL (eds) Multiple primary tumors in the head and neck, Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 1–29Google Scholar
  17. De Vries N, Snow GB (1990) Relationship of vitamins A and E and beta-carotene serum levels to head and neck cancer patients with and without second primary tumors. Eur Arch ORL 247: 368–370Google Scholar
  18. De Vries N, Waal I van der, Snow GB (1985) Dubbeltumoren bij patienten met een plaveiselcelcarcinoom van het slijmvlies in het hoofdhalsgebied. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 129: 1734–1738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. De Vries N, de Lange G, Drexhage HA, Snow GB (1987a) Immunoglobulin allotypes in head and neck cancer patients with multiple primary tumors. Acta Otolaryngol 104: 187–191Google Scholar
  20. De Vries N, de Waal LP, de Lange G, Drexhage HA, Snow GB (1987b) HLA antigens and immunoglobulin allotypes in head and neck cancer patients with and without multiple primary tumors. Cancer 60: 957–961Google Scholar
  21. De Vries N, Zandwijk N van Pastorino U, McVie JC, Dalesio O, Snow GB (1990) Euroscan. Eur Cancer News 3: 1–3Google Scholar
  22. De Vries N, van Zandwijk N, Pastorino U (1991) The Euroscan study (guest editorial). Br J Cancer 64: 985–989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Engelen AM, Stalpers LJA, Manni JJ, Ruijs JHJ, van Daal WAJ (1992) Yearly chest radiography in the early detection of lung cancer following laryngeal cancer (in press)Google Scholar
  24. EUROSCAN Steering Committee (1990) Euroscan: EORTC study on screening and chemoprevention with vitamin A and/or N-acetyl-cysteine. Eur Cancer News 3: 12–14Google Scholar
  25. Fex G, Wahlberg P, Biorklund A, Wennerberg J, Willen R (1986) Studies of cellular retinol-binding protein ( CRBP) in squamous-cell carcinomas of the head and neck region. Int J Cancer 37: 217–221Google Scholar
  26. Friedman GD, Blaner WS, Goodman DS et al. (1986) Serum retinol and retinolbinding protein levels do not predict subsequent lung cancer. Am J Epidemiol 123: 781–789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Gluckman JL, Crissman JD, Donegan JO (1980) Multicentric squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. Head Neck Surg 3: 90–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Haughey BH, Gates GA, Arfken CL, Harvey J (1992) Meta-analysis of second malignant tumors in head and neck cancer: the case for an endoscopic screening protocol. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 101: 105–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Healy GB, Strong MS, Uchmakli A, Vaughan CW, DiTroia JF (1976) Carcinoma of the palatine arch. Am J Surg 131: 498–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Heeringa A, de Vries N, Snow GB, Stam J (1988) Laryngeal cancer and lung cancer in the same patient: a retrospective study. Eur J Surg Oncol 14: 209–211Google Scholar
  31. Hong WK, Lippman SM, Itri LM et al. (1990) Prevention of second tumors with isotretinoin in squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med 323: 795–798PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hordijk GJ, de Jong JMA (1983) Synchronous and metachronous tumours in patients with head and neck cancer. J Laryngol Otol 97: 619–621Google Scholar
  33. Lamprecht J, Lamprecht A, Morgenstern C (1983) Mehrfachtumoren im oberen Aerodigestivtract - eine retrospective Studies. Laryngol Rhinol Otol 62: 499–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lau WF, Siu KF, Wei W, Lam KH (1986) Prospective screening for multiple tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract: a simple routine procedure. Laryngoscope 96: 1149–1153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Leipzig B (1983) Bronchoscopy in the staging and evaluation of head and neck carcinoma. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 92: 373–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Leipzig B, Zellmer JE, Klug D (1985) The role of endoscopy in evaluating patient with head and neck cancer. A multi-institutional prospective study. Arch Otolaryngol 111: 589–593Google Scholar
  37. Lippman SM, Hong WK (1989) Second malignant tumors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: the overshadowing threat for patients with early stage disease. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 17: 691–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Maisel RH, Vermeersch H (1981) Panendoscopy for second primaries in head and neck cancer. Ann Otol 90: 460–464Google Scholar
  39. McGuirt WF, Winston-Salem NC (1982) Panendoscopy as a screening examination for simultaneous primary tumors in head and neck cancer: a prospective sequential study and review of the literature. Laryngoscope 92: 569–576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Menkes MS, Comstock GW, Vuilleumier JP, Helsing KJ, Ruder AA, Brook-meyer R (1986) Serum beta-carotene, vitamins A and E, selenium, and the risk of lung cancer. N Engl J Med 315: 1250–1254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Middleton B, Byers T, Marshall J, Graham S (1986) Dietary vitamin A and cancer. Nutr Cancer 8: 107–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Neel HB (1984) Routine panendoscopy - is it necessary every time? Arch Otolaryngol 110: 531–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Peto R, Doll R, Buckley JD, Sporn MB (1981) Can dietary beta-carotene materially reduce human cancer rates? Nature 290: 201–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rachmat L, Vreeburg G, de Vries N, Lubsen H, Hordijk GJ, van den Broek P, Snow GB (1993) The value of twice yearly bronchoscopy in the follow-up of patients with laryngeal cancer. Eur J Cancer 29a: 1096–1099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rodriquez E, Castella J, Andres L de, Cornudella R (1984) Lung cancer in patients with tracheostomy due to cancer of the larynx. Respiration 46: 323–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rothman K, Cann CI, Flanders D, Fried MP (1980) Epidemiology of laryngeal cancer. Epidemiol Rev 2: 196–213Google Scholar
  47. Schantz SP, Hsu TC (1989) Mutagen-induced chromosome fragility within peripheral blood lymphocytes of head and neck cancer patients. Head Neck Surg 11: 337–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schantz SP, Spitz MR, Hsu TC (1990) Mutagen sensitivity in patients with head and neck cancers: a biological marker for risk of multiple primary malignancies. J Natl Cancer Inst 82: 1773–1776PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schuller DE, Fritsch MH (1986) An assessment of the value of triple endoscopy in the evaluation of head and neck cancer patients. J Surg Oncol 32: 156–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shikhani AH, Matanoski GM, Jones MM, Koshina HK, Johns ME (1986) Multiple pri-mary malignancies in head and neck cancer patients. Arch Otolaryngol 112: 1172–1180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Silverman S, Renstrup G, Pindborg J (1963) Studies in oral leukoplakias: III. Effects of vitamin A comparing clinical, histopathological, cytologic and hematologic responses. Acta Odontol Scand 21: 271–279Google Scholar
  52. Snow GB (1992) Follow-up in head and neck cancer (guest editorial). Eur J Cancer 28: 315 - 316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Spitz MR, Fueger JJ, Beddingfield NA et al. (1989) Chromosome sensitivity to bleomycin-induced mutagenesis, an independent risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancers. Cancer Res 49: 4626–4650PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Stampfer MJ, Buring JE, Willett W, Rosner B, Eberlein K, Hennekens CH (1984) The 2 x 2 factorial design: its application to a randomized trial of aspirin and carotene in U.S. physicians. Stat Med 4: 111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tuyns AJ (1979) Epidemiology of alcohol and cancer. Cancer Res 39: 2840–2851PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Williams RR, Horn JW (1977) Association of cancer sites with tobacco and alcohol consumption and socioeconomic status of patients: interview study from the third national cancer survey. J Netl Cancer Inst 58: 525–547Google Scholar
  57. Wilpart M, Speder D, Robertfroid M (1986) Anti-initiation activity of N-acetylcysteine in experimental colonic carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett 31: 319–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wolfensberger M (1988) Aufwand und Nutzen regelmaBiger Nachkontrollen bei Patienten mit Pflasterzellkarzinomen des Larynx, der Mundhohle und des Pharynx. HNO 36: 28–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Wynder EL, Bross ID, Feldman RM (1957) A study of etiological factors in cancer of the mouth. Cancer 10: 1300–1323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wynder EL, Covey LS, Mabuchi H (1976) Environmental factors in cancer of the larynx. Cancer 38: 1591–1601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wynder EL, Mushinski MH, Spivak JC (1977) Tobacco and alcohol consumption in relation to the development of multiple primary cancers. Cancer 40: 1872–1878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ziegler RG, Mason TJ, Stemhagen N et al. (1984) Dietary carotene and vitam in A and risk of lung cancer among white men in New Jersey. J Natl Cancer Inst 73: 1429–1435PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. de Vries
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck SurgeryFree University HospitalAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations