Gammopathy pp 95-124 | Cite as

Monoclonal gammopathies

  • János Jákó

Abstract

This chapter summarizes the experience of the last 25 years in the field the monoclonal gammopathies. This malignant proliferation of plasma cells is accompanied by high plasma (and fluid) levels of a homogeneous protein with normal structure (at least the existing available methods fail to reveal any pathological changes). This protein being a marker of the malignant plasma cells is a monoclonal immunoglobulin. At present the available literature in this field comprises thousands of volumes. Not only individual researchers, but large scientific research centers are studying monoclonal gammopathies. Compared to this extensive basic research, patients with monoclonal gammopathies are followed up and treated at only few clinics; therefore, the case records and the patients’ data acquisition is insufficient.

Keywords

Multiple Myeloma Plasma Cell Light Chain Monoclonal Gammopathies Free Light Chain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abramson, N., Shattils, S. J. M-components. J. Amer. med. Ass. 223, 156, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ameis, A., Ko, H. S., Pruzanski, W. M-components — a review of 1242 cases. Canad. med. Ass. J. 114, 889, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arend, W. P., Adamson, J. W. Nonsecretory myeloma: immunofluorescent demonstration of paraprotein within bone marrow plasma cells. Cancer 33, 721. 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Asconas, B. A., Fahey, J. L. Formation of Bence Jones protein and myeloma protein in vitro by the plasmacell tumor MPC-2. Biochem. J. 80,261. 1961.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Avertack, P. A human tubular array plasma cell. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 337, 17. 1977.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Axelsson, U., Hällén, J. Familial occurence of pathological serum proteins of different gamma-globulin groups. Lancet. ii. 369. 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Axelsson, U., Bachmann, R., Hällén, J. Frequency of pathological proteins (M-components) in 6.995 sera from an adult population. Acta med. scand. 179, 235. 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bachmann, R. The diagnostic significance of the serum concentration of pathological proteins (M-components). Acta med. scand. 178, 801. 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Backhausz, R. Immunodiffusion und Immunoelektrophorese. Akadémiai Kiadó Budapest. 454, 1967.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Balogh, E., Kaszâs, I., Krizsa, F., Fleischmann, T. Chromosoma vizsgálatok myeloma multiplexben. Orvosi Hetilap. 123, 35, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Balogh, E., Krizsa, F., Varga, Gy., Cserháti, I., Husz, S. Myeloma multiplexben szerzett tapasztalataink 25 beteg észlelése során. Orvosi Hetilap. 121, 2505, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bayrd, E. D.,Heck, F. J. Multiple myeloma: Review of eighty-three proved cases. J. Amer. med. Ass. 133, 147. 1947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Begemann, H. Klinische Hämatologie. Thieme: Stuttgart. 652, 1970.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Berrebi, A., Estrov, Z. Twenty Years follow-up in a patient with multiple myeloma. Acta haemat. 66, 269. 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bhoopalam, N., Chen, Y., Yakuls, V., Heller, P. The effect of RNA-rich extract from mouse plasmacytoma MOPC 104 E on the immune response. Clin. exp. Immunol. 24, 357. 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Billingham, R. E., Brent, L., Medewar, P. B. „Enhancement” in normal homografts, with a note on its possible mechanism. Transplant. Bull. 3, 84. 1956.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Boga, M., Jákó, J., Domán, J., Magyar, É., Kónyár, É. Familial myeloma. Folia haemat. 100,201. 1973.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brandtzaeg, P., Baklien, K. Immunoglobulin producing cells in the intestine in health and disease. Clinics in Gastroenterology. 5, 251. 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brücher, H. Das beginnende Plasmozitom. Blut. 28, 136. 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Buonocore, E., Solomon, A., Kerley, H. E. Pseudomyeloma. Radiology. 95,41. 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Caluvel, J. P., Damon, F., Seligmann, M. Immunoglobulines monoclonales decelees en l’absence de myelome an de macroglobulinemia de Waldenström. Nouv. Rev. Franc. Hémat. 11, 677. 1971.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Carrel, R. W., Colls, B. M., Murray, J. T. The significance of monoclonal gammopathy in a normal population. Aust. N. Z. J. med. 1, 398. 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carson, C. P., Ackerman, L. V., Maltby, J. D. Plasmacell myeloma: clinical, pathologic and roentgenologic review of 90 cases. Amer. J. clin. Path. 25, 849. 1955.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cassuto, J. P., Hammov, J. C., Pastrolle, E., Dujardin, P., Masseyeff, R. Plasmacell acid phosphatase, a discriminative test for benign and malignant monoclonal gammopathies. Biomedicine. 27, 197. 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Causey, J. Q. IgG paraproteinaemia associated with bronchogenic carcinoma. Arch. intern. med. 119, 407. 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chen, Y., Bhoopalam, N., Yakulis, V., Heller, P. Change in lymphocyte immunoglobulins in myeloma and the effect of an RNA-containing plasma factor. Ann. intern, med. 83, 625. 1975.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Clyn, D. H., Brendstrup, L., First, M. P., Pesce, A. J., Finkel, P. N., Pollak, V. E., Pirani, C. L. Renal effects of intraperitoneal kappa chain injection. Induction of crystals in renal tubular cells. Lab. Inves. 31, 131. 1974.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cohen, H. J., Lefere, L. G. Intranuclear inclusions in Bence Jones lambda plasma cell myeloma. Blood. 45, 131. 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Collan,Y. Characteristics of non epithelial cells in the epithelium of normal rat ileum. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 7, 18. 1972.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Conklin, R., Alexanian, R. Clinical classification of plasma cell myeloma. Arch. intern. med. 135, 139. 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cooper, A. G., Hobbs, J. R. Immunoglobulins in chronic cold haemogglutinin disease. Brit. J. Haemat. 19, 383. 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Croft, P. B., Urich, H., Wilkinson, M. Peripheral neuropathy of sensorimotor type associated with malignant disease. Brain. 90,31. 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Danon, F., Clauvel, J. P., Seligmann, M. The IgG and IgA paraproteines in non myelomatous disseases. Rev. franc. Étud. clin. biol. 12, 681. 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Deane,H. W. Some electron microscopic observations of the lamina propria of the gut, with comments on the close association of macrophages, plasma cells and eosinophils. Anat. Rec. 149, 453. 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dennellan, W. L. The structure of the colonic mucosa. The epithelium and subepithelial reticulohistiocytic complex. Gastroenterology. 49, 496. 1965.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Derycke, C., Fine, J. M., Boffa, G. A. Dysglobulinémies essentielles chez les sujets ages. Nouv. Rev. franc. Hémat. 5, 729. 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Deutsch, H. F. Relationships of two light chain immunoglobulins isolated from the same human source (low molecular weight immunoglobulins). Immunoschemistry. 2, 207. 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Doll, D. C., Weiss, R. B. Unusual presentations of multiple myeloma. Postgrad. med. J. 61, 116. 1977.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Domán, J., Jákó, J., Szárits, Á. Adatok az antitest radiál-immundiffúziós módszer kivitelezéséhez. Orvosi Hetilap. 116, 1639. 1975.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Drivsholm, A., Clausen, J. The relationship between the cytology and the immunoelektrophoretic pattern in 105 cases of myelomatosis. Acta med. scand. 175, 609. 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dugue, M., Rousselet, F., Kahn, M. F., et al. Etudes biologiques sur 559 cas de paraproteinemies. Clin.chim. Acta. 33, 75. 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Eidelman, S., Davis, S. D. Immunoglobulin content of intestinal mucosal plasma-cells in ataxia teleangiectasia. Lancet. i. 884. 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Eidelman, S., Lagunoff, D. The morphology of the normal human rectal biopsy. Human Pathology. 3, 389. 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Eisen, H. N., Michaelaelides, M. C, Underdown, B. J., Schulenburg, E. P., Simms, E. S. Myeloma proteins with anti-hapten antibody activity. Fed. Proc. 29, 78. 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fahey, J. L., Scoggins, R., Utz, J. P. Infection, antibody response and gammaglobulin components in multiple myeloma and marcroglobulinemia. Amer. J. med. 35,698. 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Farman, J., Degnan, T. J. Multiple myeloma with small-bone involvement. N. Y. St. J. Med. 76, 990. 1976.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fateh-Moghadam, A., Lamerz, R., Knedel, M., Baner, B. Quantitative immunologische Bestimmung von Serumproteinen bei Paraproteinaemien. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 98, 309. 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ferguson, A. Lymphocytes in coeliac disease. In: Coeliac Disease. Proceedings of the second international coeliacs symposium. Ed.: by Hekkens W. Th. J. M., Pena, A. S., Stefert, H. E., Kroese, B. V. Leiden. 1974.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Feslen, J. J. M., Marrink, J., Dr. Waard-Kuiper, E. H., Mandema, E. Immunoglobulins in families of myeloma patients. Scand. J. Immunol. 6, 887. 1977.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fine, J. M., Dormont, J., Mery, J. P., Creyseel, R., Grovlade, J., Debray-Sachs, M. Études sur la nature d’une pyroglobuline sérique observée an cours du myelome. Rev. franc. Étud. clin. biol. 6, 884. 1961.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fine, J. M., Lambin, P., Leroux, P. Frequency of monoclonal gammopathy (M-components) in 13 400 sera from blood donors. Vox Sang. 23, 336. 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fine, J., Luke, R. G., Rees, E. D. Multiple myeloma and renal impairment. Lancet. ii, 1205. 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fischer, E. R., Zawadzki, Z. A. Ultrastructural features of plasma cells in patients with paraproteinemias. Amer. J. clin. Path. 54, 779. 1970.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Grabbe, P. H., Heremans, J. F. The distribution of immunoglobulin-containing cells along the human gastrointestinal tract. Gastroenterology. 51, 305. 1966.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Graham, R. C., Bernier, G. M. The bone marrow in multiple myeloma: correlation of plasma cell ultrastructure an clinical state. Medicine. 54, 225. 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Glenner, G. G., Ein, D., Terry, W. D. The immunoglobulin origin of amyloid. Amer. J. Med. 52, 141. 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Glveck, H. I., Hong, R. A. Circulating anticoagulant in IgA multiple myeloma its modification by penicillin. J. clin. Invest. 44, 1866. 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hallén, J. Discrete gamma-globulin M-components in serum. Clinical study of 150 subjects without myelomatosis. Acta med. scand. 180, 462. 1966.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hallén, J. Frequency of „abnormal” serum globulins (M-components) in the aged. Acta med. scand. 173, 737. 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Harboe M.,Torsvik, H. Protein abnormalities in the cold haemagglutinin syndrome. Scand. J. Haematol. 6, 416. 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Harris, R. I.,Kohn,J. An urinary cryo-Bence Jones protein gelling at room temperature. Clin. chim. Acta. 53, 233. 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Heller, P., Yakulis, V., Bhoopalam, N., Costea, N., Cabana, V., Nathan, R. D. Surface immunoglobulins on circulating lymphocytes in mouse and human plasmacytoma. Transact. Assoc. Amer. Physicians. 85, 192. 1972.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hesselvik, M. Neuropathological studies on myelomatosis. Acta neurol. scand. 45, 95. 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hobbs, J. R. Disturbances of the immunoglobulins. Sci. Basis Med. 106, 27. 1966.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hobbs, J. R. Paraproteins, benign or malignant? Brit. med. J. 3, 699. 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hobbs, J. R. Monitoring myelomatosis. Arch. Intern. Med. 135, 125. 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hopper, J. E., Cera, L. The structure of human immunoglobulins. Ann. clin. Lab. Sci. 8, 201. 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Husby, G., Sletten, K., Michaelsen, T. E. Amyloid fibril protein subunit, „protein AS” distribution in tissue and serum in different clinical types of amyloidosis including that associated with myelomatosis and Waldenströms macroglobulinemia. Scand. J. Immunol. 2, 395. 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Husz, S., Krizsa, F., Dobozy, A., Hunyadi, J., Kenderessi, Sz. A., Simon, M. Egy újabb lehetőség a benignus monoklonalis gammopathia és a myeloma multiplex elkülönítő kórismézésében. Magyar Belorvosi Arch. 33, 162. 1980.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Husz, S., Török, L., Kovács, L., Szabó, É., Simon, M. Ein Fall von mit IgU (α)-Myeloma multiplex komplizierter Amyloidose. Z. Hautkr. 54. 585. 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Husz, S., Krizsa, F., Dobozy, A., Hunyadi, J., Simon, M. B and T Cell markers of Bone Marrow and peripheral Blood Lymphoid Cells in Patients with Paraproteinaemia. Acta haemat. 57,321. 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hübner, K. F., Andrews, G. A., Hayes, R. L., Poggenburg, J. K., Solomon, A. The use of rare-earth radionuclides and other boneseekers in the evaluation of bone lesions in patients with multiple myeloma or solitary plasmocytoma. Radiology. 125, 171. 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hyun, B. H., Kwa, D., Gabaldon, Herminia, Ashton, J. K. Reactive plasmacytic lesions of the bone marrow. Amer. J. clin. Path. 65, 921. 1976.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ist ván, L. Vércsoportok és betegségek. Orvosi Hetilap. 102, 202. 1961.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    István, L. Plasmocytome im Alter. In: Haematologie im Alter. Ed.: by Böhnel, J., Heinz, R., Sacher, A. Urban-Schwarzenberg. Wien-München-Baltimore. 167. 1982.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    István, L., Hindy, I., Eckhardt, S. Adatok a plasmocytoma klinikumához, kezeléséhez és gondozásához. Orvosi Hetilap. 117, 11. 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Isobe, T., Osserman, E. F. Pathologic conditions associated with plasma cell dyscrasia. A study of 806 cases. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 190, 507. 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Itani, S., Hoshino, T., Kawasaki, S., Nakayama, S. Chromosome abnormality and its significance in human multiple myeloma. Acta haemat. Jap. 33, 54. 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jaeger, E. Das extramedulläre Plasmocytom. Z. Krebsforsch.52, 349. 1942.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Jákó,J. Die Titrationsimmunoelektrophorese als ein Form der quantitativen Immunoelektrophorese. Hung. Sci. Instruments Sonderausgabe Achema. 55. 1967.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Jákó,J. Ist die Immunoglobulinsynthese der wuchernden Plasmacellen immer die gleiche? Österreichische Gessellschaft für Hämatologie und Okologie Graz, 25–26. Sept. 1981.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jákó,J.,Hitzig, W. H. In „Clinical Biochemistry” Principles and Method Ed.: by Curtius H. Ch., Roth, M. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin-NY. 1974.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Jákó, J., Pádár, J., Domán, J. Quantitative measurement of proteins by immunodiffusion methods. Hung. Sci. Instruments. 30, 33. 1974.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Jákó, J., Virágh, Sz. Nierenschädigung durch Lambda-Leichtketten. l. Donausymposium für Nephrologie. Linz 252. 1976.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jákó J., Virágh, Sz., Boga, M., Brooser, G., Dóbiás, Gy., Domán, J., Ottó, Sz., Riskó, Z., Szemere, P. A case of IgD-lambda myeloma. Haemat. hung. 9,261. 1975.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Jones, S. V., McFarlone, H. T and B cells in myelomatosis. Brit. J. Haemat. 31, 545. 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kalderon, A. E., Bogaars, H. A., Diamond, J. C., Cummings, F. J., Kaplan, S. R., Calabresi, P. Ultrastructure of myeloma cells in a case with of crystal cryo globulinemia.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Katzmann, J., Giacomoni, D., Yakulis, V., Heller, P. Characterization of two plasmacytoma fractions and their RNA capable of changing surface immunoglobulin (cell convertion). Cell. Immunol. 18, 98. 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kindler, V. Zur Differenzierung der Paraproteinaemieformen. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 97, 646. 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kitamura, M., Yamaguchi, H., Murakawa, K., Murao, T., Tizuka, Y. Screening for multiple myeloma using routine laboratory test results. Clin. Biochem. 15, 17. 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kitani, T., Yonezawa, T., Imanaka, T., Hiraoka, A., Nasu, T. Ultrastructural analysis of membrane-bound polysomes in human myeloma cells. Blut. 44,51. 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Klinghofer, L., Boroviczeny, K. G. Ein atypisches Plasmocytom. Schweiz. med. Wschr. 91, 1193. 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kobayashi, H., Potter, M., Dunn, T. B. Bone lesions produced by transplanted plasma-cell tumors in Balb/c mice. J. nat. Cancer Instr. 28, 649. 1962.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Krakauer, R. S., Strober, W., Waldmann, T. A. Hypogammaglobulinemia in experimental myeloma: The role of suppressor factors from mononuclear phagocytes. J. Immunol. 118, 1385. 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Krull, P., Kühn, K., Zobl., H., Sterzel, R. B. Akutes Nierenversagen bei Bence Jones-Plasmozytom. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 89, 318. 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kyle,R. A.,Bayrd, E. D. „Benign” monoclonal gammopathy: a potentially malignant condition? Amer. J. Med. 40. 426. 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kyle,R. A.,Bayrd, E. D. Amyloidosis: Review of 236 cases. Medicine. 54,271. 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kyle,R. A., Bayrd, E. D. The Monoclonal Gammopathies. Charles C. Thomas Publischer. Springfield Illinois USA. 133. 1976.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kyle,R. A., Elveback. L. R. Management and prognosis of multiple myeloma. Mayo Clin. Proc. 51, 751. 1975.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kyle, R. A., Finkelstein, S., Elveback, L. R., Kurland, L. T. Incidence of monoclonal proteins in a Minnesota Community with a cluster of multiple myeloma. Blood 40, 719. 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kyle, R. A., Greipp. P. R. Smouldering multiple myeloma. N. Engl. J. Med. 302, 1347. 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kyle, R. A., Maldonado, J. E., Bayrd, E. D. Idiopathic Bence Jones proteinuria. A distinct entity? Amer. J. Med. 55, 222. 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Leb, L., Grimes, E. T., Balogh, K., Meritt, J. A. Monoclonal macroglobulinemia with osteolytic lesions. Cancer. 39, 227. 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lennert, K. Malignant lymphomas other than Hodgkin’s disease. Springer-Verlag Berlin-Heidelberg-New York. 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Lieberman, R., Mushinski, J. F., Potter, M. Two chain immunoglobulin. A molecules: abnormal or normal intermediates in synthesis. Science. 159, 1355. 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Limas, C. Amyloidosis and multiple myeloma. Amer,J. Med. 54, 116. 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lindström, F. D., Hardy, W. R., Eberle, B. J., Williams, R. C. Multiple myeloma and benign monoclonal gammopathy: differentiation by immunfluorescence of limphocytes. Ann. Intern. Med. 78, 837. 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Lindström, F. D., Dahlström, U. Multiple myeloma or benign monoclonal gammopathy? A study of differential diagnostic criteria in 44 cases. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 10, 168. 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Linke, R. P., Sipe, J. D., Pollock, P. S. Isolation of low-molecularweight serum component antigenically related to an amyloid fibril protein of unknown origin. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. 72, 1473. 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Lowbeer. L. Occurence of osteosclerosis in multiple myeloma. Lab. Med. Bull. Pathol. 10, 397. 1969.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Löffler, H., Schubert, J. C. F. Cytochemische Unterschiede zwischen Plasmazellen und Myelomazellen. Klin. Wschr. 41,484. 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Löffler, H. Unspezifische Esterase und säure Phosphatase bei Plasmocytomen. Blut. 15, 330. 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    MacKenzie, M. R., Fundenberg, H. H., O’Reilly, R. A. The hyperviscosity syndrome. I. In IgG myeloma. The role of protein concentration and molecular shape. J. Clin. Invest. 49, 15. 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Maldonado, J. E., Kyle, R. A. Familial myeloma. Report of eight families and a study of serum proteins in their relationes. Amer. J. Med. 57, 875. 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Maldonado, J. E., Riggs, B. L., Bayrd, E. D. Pseudomyeloma: is association of severe osteoporosis with serum monoclonal gammopathy an entity or a coincedence? Arch. Intern. Med. 135, 267. 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Mancini, G. A., Carbonara, D., Heremans, J. F. Immunochemical quantitation of antigens by single radial immunodiffusion. Immunochemistry. 2, 235. 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Mangalih, A., Veliath, A. J. Osteosclerotic myeloma and peripherial neuropathy: A case report. Cancer. 28, 1040. 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    March, M. N. Studies of intestinal lymphoid tissue. Gut. 16, 665. 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Meinke, C. G., Spegelberg, H. L. Amino acid sequence of the first hypervariable region of 2 kappa and a lambda Bence Jones cryoglobulin. Immunochemistry 13, 915. 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Mellors, R. C, Korngold, L. The cellular origin of human immunoglobulins. J. exp. Med. 118,387. 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Mellstedt,H.,Holm,G. In vitro studies of lymphocytes from patients with plasmacell myeloma. I. Stimulation by mitogens and cytotoxic activities. Clin. exp. Immunol. 15, 309. 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Meltzer, H. M., Franklin, E. C., Elias, K., Mc Luskey, F. T., Cooper, N. Cryoglobulinemia. A clinical and laboratory study. Amer. J. Med. 40, 837. 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Menkes, C. J., Hereman, G., Preud’homme, J. L.,Dodeau, P., Delbarre, F. Non secretory plasma cell myeloma. Two new cases. Nouv. Pres. Med. 29, 309. 1972.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Meyer. F. In vitro incoporation of C14-lysine into Bence-Jones protein. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. 110, 106. 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Michaux, J. L., Heremans, J. F. Thirty cases of monoclonal immunoglobulin disorders other than myeloma or macroglobulinemia. Amer. J. Med. 46, 562. 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Morell, A., Skvaril, F., Spengler, G., Barandun, S. Unterscheidung benigner und maligner monoklonaler Gammopathien aufgrund von Knochenmark- und Serumuntersuchungen. Schweiz. med. Wschr. 107, 1463. 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Morley, J. B., Schwieger, A. C. The relation between chronic polyneuropathy and osteosclerotic myeloma. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. psychiat. 30, 432. 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Mundy, G. R., Raisz, L. G., Cooper, R. A. Evidence for the secretion of on osteoclast stimulating factor in myeloma. New Engl. J. Med. 291, 1041. 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Muylle, L., Smet, D. De., Cole, J., Peetermans, M. E. HLA-DR and monoclonal gammopathy. Tissue Antigens. 20, 397. 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Nagaoka, M. On the histological structure of extramedullary lesion in multiple myeloma and of extramedullare plasma-cell tumor. J. Kyushu Hamatol. Soc. 6, 88, 1956.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Norgaard, O. Three cases of multiple myeloma in which the preclinical asymptomatic phases persisted throughout 15 to 24 Years. Brit. J. Cancer. 25, 417, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Nossal, F. J. V., Mäkela, O. Elaboration of antibodies by single cells. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 16, 53. 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Otto, H. F., Walke, A. Über lympho-epitheliale Bezichungen bei Enteropathien. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 355, 85. 1972.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Otto, H. F. The interepithelial lymphocytes of the intestinum. Morphological observation and immunological aspects of intestinal enteropathy. Curr. Top. path. 57, 81. 1973.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Ottó, Sz.,Balogh, I.,Jákó,J. Elektron microscopic study of plasma cells in immunoproliferative diseases. Acta morph. Acad. Sci. hung. 22, 331. 1974.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ottó, Sz., Balogh, I., Jákó, J., Kellner, R. Monoclonal IgA-kappa type protein of alpha-2 mobility and various plasma cell alterations in plasmocytoma. Acta morph. Acad. Sci hung. 22, 337. 1974.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Paine, C. J., Richardson, J. V., Eichner, E. R. Diverse clinical expression of multiple myeloma-atypical presentations. Amer. J. med. Sci. 267, 99. 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Paraskevas, F., Heremans, J., Waldenström, J. Cytology and electrophoretic pattern gamma1A (beta2A) myeloma. Acta med. scand. 170, 575. 1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Parrot, D. M. V. The gut as a lymphoid organ. Gastroenterology. 5, 211. 1976.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Perkins, H. A., MacKenzie, M. R., Fudenberg, H. H. Hemostatic defects in dysproteinemias. Blood. 35, 695. 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Plaut, A. G.,Keonil, P. Immunoglobulins in human small intestinal fluid. Gastroenterology. 56, 522. 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Potter, M. Myeloma proteins (M-components) with antibodylike activity. New Engl. J. Med. 284, 831. 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Preud’homme, J. L., Hurez, D., Danon Francoise, Brovet, J. C., Seligmann, M. Intracytoplasmic and surface-bound immunoglobulins in „nonsecretory” and Bence Jones myeloma. Clin. exp. Immunol. 25, 428. 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Rádl, J., Hollander, G. F. Homogeneous immunoglobulins in sera of mice during aging. J. Immunol. 112, 2271. 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Ringe, J. D., Mertelsmann, R. Fehldiagnose „Osteoporose” beim diffusen Plasmocytom. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 102, 928. 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Ritzmann, S. E., Loukas, D., Sakai, H., Daniels, J. C., Levin, W. C. Idiopathic (asymptomatic) monoclonal gammotpathies. Arch. intern. Med. 135, 95. 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Rodriquez, A. R., Lutcher, Ch. L., Coleman, F. W. Osteosclerotic myeloma. J. Amer. med. Ass. 236, 1872. 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Rogers, J. S., Spahr, J., Judge, D. M., Varano, L. A., Eyster, M. E. IgE myeloma with osteoblastic lesions. Blood. 49, 295. 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Roques, C. F., Fournie, A., Ruffie, R. La maladie de Kahler. Sem. Hop. Paris. 53, 1343. 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Rywlin, A. M., Civantos, I., Ortega, R. S., Dominquez, C. J. Bone marrow histology in monoclonal macroglobulinaemia. Amer. J. clin. Path. 63, 769. 1975.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Salmon, S. E., Smith, B. A. Immunoglobulin synthesis and total body tumor cell number in IgG multiple myeloma. J. clin. Invest. 49, 1114. 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Salmon, S. E., Smith, B. A. Sandwich solid phase radioimmunoassays for the characterization of human immunoglobulins synthesized in vitro. J. Immunol. 104, 665. 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Salmon, S. E. „Paraneoplastic” syndromes associated with monoclonal lymphocyte and plasma cell proliferation. Amer. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 230, 228. 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Salmon, S. E. Myeloma and related disorders. Clinics in haematology. 11. 1982.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Schmiegel, W. H., Hamann, A., Thiele, H. G. Darmassoziiertes Immunsystem. Lokale Immunantwort — systemische Toleranz. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 107, 267. 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Schneiderbaur, A., Rettenbacher, F. Die Paraproteinurie beim Plasmocytom. Wien. med. Wschr. 112, 801. 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Seligmann, M., Danon, F., Basch, A., Bernard, J. IgA myeloma-cryoglobulin with antistreptolysin activity. Nature. 220,711. 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Seligmann, M., Sassy, C., Chevalier, A. A human IgG myeloma protein with anti-alfa2-macroglobulin antibody activity. J. Immunol. 110,85. 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Shimizu, K., Murate, T., Kunii, A. Circulating immunoglobulin-secreting cells in patients with plasma cell dyscrasia. Blood. 55, 590. 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Shimizu, K., Ohinishi, K., Kunii, A. Differentiation of benign monoclonal gammopathy and smouldering multiple myeloma from frank myeloma. Clin. exp. Immunol. 50, 596. 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Shuster, J., Gold, P., Povlik, M. D. Beta2 microglobulin levels on cancerous and other diseaseGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Smetana, K., Györkey, F., Györkey, P., Busch, H. Ultrastructural studies on human myeloma plasmocytes. Cancer Res. 33, 2300. 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Spiegelberg, H. L., Heath, V. C., Lang. J. E. Human nyeloma IgG half-molecules. Structural and antigenic analyses. Biochemistry. 14, 2157. 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Spiegelberg, H. L., Fishkin, B. G. Human myeloma IgA half-molecules. J. clin. Invest. 58, 1259. 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Staven, P., Vandvik, B., Skrede, S., Hovig, T. Nedle-like crystals in plasma cells in a patient with a plasma cell proliferative disorder. Scand. J. Haematol. 14, 24. 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Staven, P., Froland, S. S., Haugen, H. F., Lislerud, A. Nonsecretory myelomatosis without intracellular immunoglobulin. Scand. J. Haematol. 17, 89. 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Stocker, W. G. Monoklonale Gammopathie. Med. Welt. 28, 1286. 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Stone, M. J., Frendel, E. P. The clinical spectrum of light chain myeloma: A study of 35 patients with special reference to the occurence of amyloidosis. Amer. J. Med. 58,601. 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Streiff, F., Humberl, J. C., Bertrand, F., et. al. Fréquence des gammapathies monoclonales isolées. Confrontation bioclinique a propos de 394 cas d’immunoglobulines pathologiques. Nouv. Rev. franc. Hémat. 11, 636. 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Togawa, A., Inoue, N., Miyamoto, K., Hyodo, H., Namba, M. Establishment and characterization of a human myeloma cell line (KKM-1). Int. J. Cancer. 29,495. 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Toner, P. G., Fergusson, A. Intraepithelial cells in the human intestinal mucosa. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 34, 329. 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Turesson, I. Nucleolar size in benign and malignant plasma cell proliferation. Acta med. scand. 197, 7. 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Van Antwerp. J. D., O’Mara, R. E., Pitt, M. J. Technetium — 99mdiphosphonate accumulation in amyloid. J. nucl. med. 16, 238. 1975.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Van Camp, B. G. K., Cole, J., Peetermans, M. E. HLA antigens and homogeneus immunologlobulins. Clin. Immunol. Immunpath. 7, 315. 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Waldenström, J. Diagnosis and treatment of multiple myeloma. Grune and Stratton, New York and London, 1970.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Waldenström, J. Clinical diagnosis and biochemical findings in material of 296 sera with M-type, Narrow gamma globulins. Acta med. scand. 367 (suppl.) 110. 1961.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Waldmann, T. A., Blaese, R. M., Broder, S, Krakauer, R. S. Disorders of suppressor immunoregulatory cells in the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. Ann. intern. Med. 88, 226. 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Waldmann, T. A., Strober, W. Metabolism of immunoglobulins. Progr. Allergy. 13, 1. 1979.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Weits, J., de Gast. G. C., The, T. H., Esselink, M. T., Mandema, R. Cellular immunocompetence in asymptomatic paraproteinemia. Acta med. scand. 202, 17. 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Williams, R. C. Jr., Erickson, J. L., Polerky, H. F., Swaim, W. R. Studies of monoclonal immunoglobulins (M-components) in various kindreds. Ann. intern. Med. 67, 309. 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Williams, R. C. Cold agglutinins: studies of primary structure serologic activity and antigenic uniqueness. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 190, 330. 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Wiltshaw, E. The natural history of extramedullary plasmacytoma and its relation to solitary myeloma of bone and myelomatosis. Medicine. 55, 217. 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Wochner, R. D., Strober, W., Waldmann, T. A. The role of kidney in the catabolism of Bence Jones proteins and immunoglobulin fragments. J.exp. Med. 126,207. 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Wutke, K., Rüdiger, K. D., Kelényi, G., István, L., Herold, M., Anger, G. Das multiple-Myelom-erste Erfahrungen mit einer kooperativen Studie. Deutsche Gesundheitswesen. 35, 268. 1980.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Wutke, K., Várbíró, M., Rüdiger, K. D., Kelényi G. Citological and Histological Classification of Multiple Myeloma. Haematologia. 14,315. 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Yentis, I. Radiological aspects of myelomatosis. Clin. Radiol. 12, 1. 1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Yonezawa, T., Kitani, R., Tamaki, R., Kanayama, Y., Hiraoka, A., Tarui, S. Immunoglobulin production and secretion in Bence Jones protein myeloma and „nonsecretory” myeloma. Ultrastructural and immunofluorescence study. Blut. 45, 121. 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Zawadzki, Z. A., Edwards, G. A. Nonmyelomatous monoclonal immunoglobulinemia. Prog. clin. Immunol. 1, 105. 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Zielinski, Ch., Lanzer, G., Ludwig, H. P. Defects of leukocyte locomotion in multiple myeloma. J. Clin. Lab. Immunol. 7, 111. 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Jákó János, Budapest 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • János Jákó
    • 1
  1. 1.1st Department of MedicinePostgraduate Medical SchoolBudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations