Texture of Plants

  • J. F. V. Vincent
Part of the Modern Methods of Plant Analysis book series (MOLMETHPLANT, volume 16)


Fruit and vegetables are complex cellular structures in which the cells are under turgor. Using a general approach to cellular materials we can predict stiffness, and to a lesser extent strength, only of non-turgor systems such as wood and bark (Gibson and Ashby 1988). In order to analyze the texture of fruit and vegetables mathematical models for turgid cellular systems are required. There are studies on the relationship between turgor and mechanical properties of individual cells (Pitt and Davis 1984) but such models have not yet been successfully developed to describe assemblages of cells with their more complex interactions. There are models which do describe the properties of turgid tissues (Falk et al. 1958), but these have not been derived from the properties of individual cells, a development which is still only in prospect. In general, therefore, it is probably safer to use theoretical models as little as possible when trying to derive parameters or make comparisons.


Shear Failure Turgor Pressure Texture Stud Store Strain Energy Apparent Fracture Toughness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Atkins AG, Mai Y-W (1985) Elastic and plastic fracture: metals, polymers, ceramics, composites, biological materials. Ellis Horwood, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  2. Atkins AG, Vincent JFV (1984) An instrumented microtome for improved histological sections and the measurement of fracture tonghness. J Mater Sci Lett 3:310–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aubert S, Duprat F, Szot B (1984) Mesures mecaniques directes de la texture fibreuse des carottes. Sci Aliments 4:617–630Google Scholar
  4. Blahovec J (1988) Mechanical properties of some plant materials. J Mater Sci 23: 3588–3593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Falk S, Hertz CH, Virgin HI (1958) On the relation between turgor pressure and tissue rigidity I. Experiments on resonant frequency and tissue rigidity. Physiol Plant 11: 802–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gibson LJ, Ashby MF (1988) Cellular solids, structure and properties. Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  7. Gibson LJ, Ashby MF, Easterling KE (1988) Structure and mechanics of the iris leaf. J Mater Sci 23:3041–3048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gordon JE (1976) The new science of strong materials, or why you don’t fall through the floor, 2nd edn. Penguin, HarmondsworthGoogle Scholar
  9. Griffith AA (1921) The phenomena of rupture and flow in solids. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 221:163–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Holt JE, Schoorl D (1977) Bruising and energy dissipation in apples. J Texture Stud 7:421–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Holt JE, Schoorl D (1983) Cracking and energy dissipation in cabbages. J Texture Stud 14:99–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Khan AA (1988) Mechanical and fracture properties of fruit and vegetables. PhD Thesis, University of ReadingGoogle Scholar
  13. Lewis AC (1982) Leaf wilting alters a plant species ranking by the grasshopper Melanoplus differentialis. Ecol Entomol 7:391–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lin T-T, Pitt RE (1986) Rheology of apple and potato tissue as affected by cell turgor pressure. J Texture Stud 17:291–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lustig I, Bernstein Z (1985) Determination of the mechanical properties of the grape berry skin by hydraulic measurements. Sci Hortic 25:279–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Noble R (1985) The relationship between impact and internal bruising on potato tubers. J Agric Eng Res 32:111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pitt RE (1982) Models for the rheology and statistical strength of uniformly stressed vegetative tissue. Trans ASAE 25:1776–1784Google Scholar
  18. Pitt RE (1984) Stress-strain and failure characteristics of potato tissue under cyclic loading. J Texture Stud 15:131–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pitt RE, Chen HL (1983) Time-dependent aspects of the strength and rheology of vegetative tissue. Trans ASAE 26:1275–1280Google Scholar
  20. Pitt RE, Davis DC (1984) Finite element analysis of fluid-filled cell response to external loading. Trans ASAE 27:1976–1983Google Scholar
  21. Reeve RM (1953) Histological investigations of texture in apples II. Structure and intercellular spaces. Food Res 18:604–617Google Scholar
  22. Schoorl D, Holt JE (1983) Cracking in potatoes. J Texture Stud 14:61–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tattersall HG, Tappin G (1966) The work of fracture and its measurement in metals, ceramics and other materials. J Mater Sci 1:296–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Vincent JFV (1989) The relation between density and stiffness of apple flesh. J Sci Food Agric 47:443–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Vincent JFV, Jeronimidis G, Khan AA, Luyten H (1991) The wedge fracture test, a new method for measurement of food texture. J Texture Stud 22:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Voisey PW, Lyall LH (1965) Methods of determining the strength of tomato skins in relation to fruit cracking. Proc Am Soc Hortic Sci 86:597–609Google Scholar
  27. Willis A (1989) Design and development of an instrumented microtome. PhD Thesis, University of ReadingGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. F. V. Vincent

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations