The Role of Interleukin-1 in Septic Shock

  • C. A. Dinarello
  • K. Aiura
  • J. A. Gelfand
Part of the Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine book series (YEARBOOK, volume 1992)


Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and Interleukin-1 (IL-1) are two polypeptide cytokines that possess a broad spectrum of biological properties. These cytokines share many of their various biological properties and, moreover, IL-1 and TNF often act in a synergistic fashion. For example, both IL-1 and TNF induce hemodynamic shock in experimental animals; the combined infusion of IL-1 and TNF produces tissue damage and metabolic derangements similar to those associated with injury and sepsis in humans [1–3]. Furthermore, serum TNF and IL-lβ levels are elevated in patients with gram-negative bacteremia, and correlate with the severity of the sepsis [2–6]. Although other mediators, such as arachidonic acid metabolites, platelet activating factor (PAF) and nitric oxide (NO) [7] also contribute to the pathophysiologic changes of gram-negative bacteremia, it is important to recognize that IL-1 and TNF induce cyclooxygenase, PAF, and nitric oxide synthase. Therefore, a working hypothesis for the role of these cytokines in sepsis is that they are produced during infection and trauma and they induce the subsequent effector molecules of the shock syndrome. This fundamental concept is illustrated in Fig. 1.


Tumor Necrosis Factor Septic Shock Tumor Necrosis Factor Level Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor Septic Shock Syndrome 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. A. Dinarello
  • K. Aiura
  • J. A. Gelfand

There are no affiliations available

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