Advertisement

Structural Molecules in Articular Cartilage, Tendons, and Ligaments

  • E. B. Hunziker
Chapter

Abstract

The numerous functions of the knee joint are based on a finely coordinated interaction of diverse elements of the locomotor system, including the articular cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. These tissues owe their unique biomechanical properties to the presence of specific macromolecules in the extracellular space, their organization into higher-order structural units, and the interactions among them. The macro- and supramolecular organization of the extracellular matrix in these tissues remains under cellular control throughout the life of the individual. This is of crucial importance as it relates to the ongoing “transformation and renewal” of tissues and to possible regenerative processes.

Keywords

Articular Cartilage Collagen Fibril Collagen Molecule Type Versus Collagen Fibril Diameter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Birk DE, Trelstad RL (1986) Extracellular compartments in tendon morphogenesis: Collagen fibril, bundle, and ma-croaggregate formation. J Cell Biol 103: 231–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Birk DE, Fitch JM, Babiarz JP, Linsenmayer TF (1988) Collagen type I and type V are present in the same fibril in the avian corneal stroma. J Cell Biol 106: 999–1008PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bruns RR, Press W, Engvall E, Timpl R, Gross J (1986) Type VI collagen in extracellular, 100-nm periodic filaments and fibrils: Identification by immunoelectron microscopy. J Cell Biol 103: 393–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Buckwalter JA, Rosenberg LC (1988) Electron microscopic studies of cartilage proteoglycans. Electr Microsc Rev 1:87–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burgeson RE (1988 a) Do banded collagen fibers contain two or more collagen types? ISI Atlas of Science/Biochemistry 1/1: 88–91Google Scholar
  6. Burgeson RE (1988 b) New collagens, new concepts, Ann Rev Cell Biol 4: 551–577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carney SL, Muir H (1988) The structure and function of cartilage proteoglycans. Physiol Rev 68/3: 858–910PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Dublet B, van der Rest M (1987) Type XII collagen is expressed in embryonic chick tendons. J Biol Chem 262/36: 17727–17727Google Scholar
  9. Dublet B, Dixon E, de Miguel E, van der Rest M (1988) Bovine type XII collagen: amino acid sequence of a 10 kDa pepsin fragment from periodontal ligament reveals a high degree of homology with the chicken l(XII) sequence. FEBS Lett 233/1: 177–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Evered D, Whelan J (eds) (1986) CIBA Foundation Symposium 124. Functions of the proteoglycans. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  11. Eyre DR, Wu JJ, Apone S (1987) A growing family of collagens in articular cartilage: Identification of 5 genetically distinct types. J Rheumatol 14/14: 25–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Eyre DR, Dickson IR, van Ness K (1988) Collagen cross-linking in human bone and articular cartilage. Age-related changes in the content of mature hydroxypyridinium residues. Biochem J 252: 495–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Fleischmajer R, Perlish JS, Olsen BR (1987) The carboxyl-propeptide of type I procollagen in skin fibrillogenesis. J Invest Dermatol 89/2: 212–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goetinck PF, Stirpe NS, Tsonis PA, Carlone D (1987) The tandemly repeated sequences of cartilage link protein contain the sites for interaction with hyaluronic acid. J Cell Biol 105: 2403–2408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Grant WT, Sussman MD, Balian G (1985) A disulfide-bonded short chain collagen synthesized by degenerative and calcifying zones of bovine growth plate cartilage. J Biol Chem 264: 3798–3803Google Scholar
  16. Hascall VC (1981) Proteoglycans: structure and function. In: Ginsburg V, Robbins P (eds) Biology of carbohydrates, vol 1. Wiley, Chichester, pp 1–48Google Scholar
  17. Hay ED (ed) (1982) Cell biology of extracellular matrix. Plenum, New York LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Heinegård D, Larsson T, Sommarin Y, Franzen A, Pauls-son M, Hedbom E (1986) Two novel matrix proteins isolated from articular cartilage show wide distributions among connective tissues. J Biol Chem 261/29: 13866–13872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hørslev-Petersen K, Pedersen LR, Bentsen KD et al. (1988) Collagen type IV and procollagein type III during granulation tissue formation: a serological, biochemical, immuno-histochemical and morphometrical study on the viscose cellulose sponge rat model. Eur J Clin Invest 18:352–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Huber S, Bruckner P, van der Rest M, Rodriguez E, Winter-halter KH, Vaughan L (1986) Identification of the type IX collagen polypeptide chains. J Biol Chem 261/13: 5965–5968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kapoor R, Sakai LY, Funk S, Roux E, Bornstein P, Sage EH (1988) Type VIII collagen has a restricted distribution in specialized extracellular matrices. J Cell Biol 107: 721–730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Keene DR, Sakai LY, Bächinger HP, Burgeson RE (1987 a) Type III collagen can be present on banded collagen fibrils regardless of fibril diameter. J Cell Biol 105: 2393–2402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Keene DR, Burgeson RE, Sakai LY, Lunstrum GP, Morris NP (1987 b) Type VII collagen forms and extended network of anchoring fibrils. J Cell Biol 104: 611–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kimura T, Yasui N, Wakitani S, Araki N, Ono K (1988) Type IX and type II collagens are coordinately expressed during chick limb development. Biomed Res 9/4: 319–324Google Scholar
  25. Kuettner KE, Schleyerbach R, Hascall VC (eds) (1985) Workshop Conference Hoechst-Werk Albert, Wiesbaden. Articular cartilage biochemistry. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Kuijer R, van de Stadt RJ, de Koning MHMT, van der Korst JK (1985) Influence of constituents of proteoglycans on type II collagen fibrillogenesis. Collagen Rel Res 5: 379–391Google Scholar
  27. Mayne R, Burgeson RE (eds) (1987) Biology of extracellular matrix: A series. Structure and function of collagen types. Acad. Press, Orlando/FLGoogle Scholar
  28. Mayne R, von der Mark K (1983) Collagens of cartilage. In: Hall BK (ed) Cartilage, vol 1: Structure, function, and biochemistry. Acad Press, Orlando/FLGoogle Scholar
  29. Mörgelin M, Paulsson M, Hardinghaus T, Heinegard D, Engel J (1988) Cartilage proteoglycans: Assembly with hyaluronate and link proteins as studied by electron microscopy. Biochem J 253: 175–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Müller-Glauser W, Bruckner P, Humbel B, Glatt M, Sträuli P, Winterhalter KH (1986) On the role of type IX collagen in the extracellular matrix of cartilage: Type IX collagen is localized to intersections of collagen fibrils. J Cell Biol 102: 1931–1939PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Paulsson M, Mörgelin M, Wiedemann H et al. (1987) Extended and globular protein domains in cartilage proteoglycans. Biochem J 245: 763–772PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Poole AR (1986) Proteoglycans in health and disease: structures and functions. Biochem J 236:1–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Poole AR, Pidoux I, Reiner A, Rosenberg L (1982) An immunoelectron microscope study of the organization of proteoglycan monomer, link protein, and collagen in the matrix of articular cartilage. J Cell Biol 93: 921–937PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Poole AR, Pidoux I, Reiner A, Choi H, Rosenberg LC (1984) Association of an extracellular protein (chondrocalcin) with the calcification of cartilage in endochondral bone formation. J Cell Biol 98: 54–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ruoslahti E (1988) Structure and biology of proteoglycans. Ann Rev Cell Biol 4: 229–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schmid T, Linsenmayer TF (1985) Developmental acquisition of type X collagen in the embryonic chick tibiotarsus. Dev Biol 107: 373–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Smith GN jr, Brandt KD, Williams JM (1987) Effect of polyanions on fibrillogenesis by type XI collagen. Collagen Rel Res 7: 17–25Google Scholar
  38. Trelstad RL, Birk DE, Silver FH (1982) Collagen fibrillogenesis in tissues, in solution and from modeling: A synthesis. J Invest Dermatol 79/1: 109s-112sPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. van der Rest M, Mayne R (1987) Type IX collagen. In: van der Rest M, Mayne R (eds) Structure and function of collagen types. Academic Press, Orlando/FLGoogle Scholar
  40. van der Rest M, Mayne R (1988) Type IX collagen proteoglycan from cartilage is covalently cross-linked to type II collagen. J Biol Chem 263/4: 1615–1618Google Scholar
  41. Wight TN, Mecham RP (eds) (1987) Biology of extracellular matrix: A series. Biology of proteoglycans. Academic Press, Orlando/FLGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. B. Hunziker

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations