Instability of the Medial Collateral Ligament: Operative or Nonoperative Treatment?

  • P. M. Ballmer
  • R. P. Jakob


Based on favorable long-term results, O’Donoghue (1950,1955) and later Hughston and Eilers (1973) advocated the operative treatment of injuries of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the knee. But the 98% success rate reported by Ellsasser et al. in 1974 following the conservative treatment of isolated medial collateral ligament tears led to renewed interest in the nonoperative management of this common ligamentous injury, which became the subject of further investigations (Bergfeld 1979; Derscheid and Garick 1981; Fetto and Marshall 1978; Hastings 1980; Indelicate 1983; Jones et al. 1986; O’Connor 1979). Although the outcomes in these studies are quite convincing, there are significant discrepancies in terms of diagnosis (especially the grading of injuries by severity), treatment methods, and follow-up criteria.


Cruciate Ligament Medial Opening Valgus Stress Collateral Ligament Injury Posterior Oblique Ligament 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. M. Ballmer
  • R. P. Jakob

There are no affiliations available

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