Morphologic Ultrastructure of Repaired and Reconstructed Ligaments

  • W. Hackenbruch
  • H. Arnold-Schmiebusch


We have combined arthroscopic and electron microscopic studies in an effort to identify objective criteria governing the fate of the repaired or reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Other objective methods (e.g., mechanical rupture tests or the complete histologic workup of a whole cruciate ligament) are inappropriate for use in human subjects on ethical grounds.


Anterior Cruciate Ligament Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Cruciate Ligament Posterior Cruciate Ligament Patellar Tendon 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Hackenbruch
  • H. Arnold-Schmiebusch

There are no affiliations available

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