Update 1991 pp 120-125 | Cite as

Classification of Shock in the Intensive Care Unit Using Transesophageal Two-Dimensional Echocardiography

  • J. J. Koolen
  • C. A. Visser
  • H. B. van Wezel
Part of the Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine book series (UICM, volume 14)


Shock in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is an emergency situation that needs rapid determination of the cause, allowing therapeutic measures. Assessment of the hemodynamic profile using a balloon-tipped floating pulmonary artery catheter usually provides information about the degree of circulatory impairment, which can be used to direct therapy [1–3]. If the hemodynamic variables are non-conclusive and measures taken accordingly do not reverse this clinical emergency, additional information is warranted to ascertain whether shock is distributive (as in sepsis), obstructive (as in cardiac tamponade), hypovolemic (e.g. due to bleeding) or cardiogenic (e.g. myocardial infarction) [4].


Pericardial Effusion Cardiac Tamponade Hemodynamic Variable Blunt Chest Trauma Hemodynamic Profile 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. J. Koolen
  • C. A. Visser
  • H. B. van Wezel

There are no affiliations available

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