Advertisement

Aktuelle Therapiestudien

  • M. Soloway
  • F. H. Schröder
  • Urologische Arbeitsgruppe der E.O.R.T.C
  • W. B. Peeling
  • K. Griffiths
  • Mitglieder der British Prostate Group
  • P. Iversen
  • S. Baba
  • K.-H. Schweickert
  • A. J. W. Goldschmidt
  • I. F. Tannock

Zusammenfassung

Bei Patienten (Männern) mit metastasiertem Prostatakarzinom stellt der Anrogenentzug die Initialtherapie dar. Bedauerlicherweise erleiden die meisten so behandelten Patienten nach einem anfänglichen Ansprechen des Tumors eine Progression mit einer anschließenden durchschnittlichen Überlebensdauer von weniger als 18 Monaten. Das National Prostatic Cancer Project (NPCP) initiierte 1973 klinische Studien über den Einsatz nicht hormoneller Therapien bei dieser Patientengruppe.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Eisenberger MA, Simon R, O’Dwyer PJ, Wittes RE, Friedman MA (1985) A re-evaluation of non-hormonal cytotoxic chemotherapy in the treatment of prostatic carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 3: 827–841PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Loening SA, Beckley S, DeKernion J, Gibbons RP (1981) Comparison of hydroxyurea, methyl CCNU and cyclophosphamide in patients with advanced carcinoma of the prostate. J Urol 125: 812–816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Loening SA, Beckley S, Brady MF, Chu TM et al (1983) Comparison of estramustine phosphate, methotrexate, and cis-pltinum in patients with advanced hormone refractory prostate cancer. J Urol 129: 1001–1006PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Murphy GP, Gibbons RP, Johnson DE, Loening SA (1977) Comparison of estramustine phosphate and streptozotocin in patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma who have had extensive irradiation. J Urol 118: 288–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Murphy GP, Gibbons RP, Johnson DE, and Prout GR (1979) The use of estramustine and prednimustine versus prednimustine alone in advanced metastatic prostatic cancer patients who have received prior irradiation. J Urol 121: 763–765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Murphy GP, Beckley S, Brady MF, Chu TM (1983) Treatment of newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer patients with chemotherapy agents in combination with hormones vs hormones alone. Cancer 51: 1254–1277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Schmidt JD, Scott WW, Gibbons RP, Johnson DE (1979) Comparison of procarbazine, imidazol-carboxomide and cyclophosphamide in relapsing patients with advanced carcinoma of the prostate. J Urol 121: 185–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Scott WW, Gibbons RP, Johnson DE, Prout GR (1975) Comparison of 5-Fluorouracil and Cyclophosphamide in patients with advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Cancer Chemother Rep 59: 195–201Google Scholar
  9. Slack NH, Brady MF, Murphy GP and Investigators of NPCP (1984) A re-examination in the stable category for evaluating response in patients with advanced prostate cancer. Cancer 54: 564–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Soloway MS, DeKernion J, Gibbons RP, Johnson DE, Loening SA, Pontes JE, et al (1981) Comparison of estramustine phosphate and vincristine alone or in combination for patients with advanced hormone refractory previously irradiated carcinoma of the prostate. J Urol 125: 664–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Soloway MS, Beckley S, Brady MF, Chu TM et al (1983) A comparison of estramustine phosphate vs cis-platinum alone vs estramustine phosphate plus cis-platinum in patients with advanced hormone refractory prostate cancer who had extensive irradiation to the pelvis or lumbosacral area. J Urol 129: 56–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Tannock IF (1985) Is there evidence that chemotherapy is of benefit to patients with carcinoma of the prostate? J Clin Oncol 3: 1013–1021PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Benson RC, Gill GM, Cummings KB (1983) Randomised double blind crossover trial of Diethyl Stilboestrol (DES) and Estramustine Phosphate (EMCYT). The Stage D Prostatic Cancer. Semin Oncol 10 (Suppl 3): 43–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Byar DP (1980) A review of the Veterans’ Administration Studies of Cancer of the Prostate: the new results concerning treatment of Stage I and II tumours. In: Pavone Macaluso M, Smith PH, Edsmyr S (eds) Bladder tumours and other topics in urological oncology. Plenum, New York London, pp 471–492Google Scholar
  15. De Voogt HJ, Smith PH, Pavone Macaluso M, de Pauw M, Suciu S, and Members of the European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer Urological Group (1986) Cardiovascular side effects of diethylstilbestrol, cyproterone acetate, medroxyprogesterone acetate and estramustine phosphate used for the treatment of advanced prostatic cancer: results from European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer trials 30761 and 30762. J Urol 135: 303–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Denis L, Smith P, Carneiro de Moura JL, Newling D, Bono A, Keuppens F, Mahler C, Robinson M, Sylvester R, de Pauw M, Vermeulen K, Ongena P und Mitglieder der EORTC-GU-Group (1991) Total androgen oblation: european experience. Urol Clin North Am 18: 65–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Jones WG, Fossa SD, Denis L, Coninx P, Glashan RW, Akdas A, de Pauw M (1983) An EORTC phase II study of vindesine in advanced prostate cancer. Eur J Cancer 19: 583–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jones WG and members of the EORTC Genitourinary Cancer Cooperative Group (1984) EORTC Phase II Chemotherapy studies in prostate cancer. In: Denis L, Murphy GP, Prout GR, Schröder FH (eds) Controlled clinical trials in urologic oncology. Raven, New York, pp 181–185Google Scholar
  19. Jones WG, Bono AV, Verbaeys A, de Pauw M, Sylvester R, and members of the EORTC Genitourinary Tract Cancer Cooperative Group (1986 a) Can the primary tumour be usedGoogle Scholar
  20. Jones WG, Fossa SD, Bono AV, Croies JJ, Stoter G, de Pauw M, Sylvester R, and members of the EORTC Genitourinary Tract Cancer Cooperative Group (1986 b) Mitomycin-C in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer: report on an EORTC phase II study. World J Urol 4: 182–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jones WG, Fossa SD, Bono AV, Klijn JMG, de Pauw M, Sylvester R (1987) European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) phase II study of low-dose weekly epirubicin in metastatic prostate cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 71: 1317–1318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Pavone Macaluso M, Lund F, Mulder JH, Smith PH, de Pauw M, Sylvester R, and the EORTC Urological Group (1980) EORTC protocols in prostatic cancer. Scand J Urol Nephrol (Suppl) 55: 163–168Google Scholar
  23. Pavone Macaluso M, de Pauw M, Suciu S, Sylvester R, de Voogt HJ, Lardennois B, Nasta A, Zolfanelli R, Barasoldo E, and the EORTC Urological Group (1982) Medroxyprogesterone acetate, diethylstilboestrol and cyproterone acetate in the treatment of the prostatic cancer. Interim report of a prospective study of the European Organization for Research on the Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Genito-urinary Tract Cooperative Group. Excerpta Medica International Series, pp 436-444Google Scholar
  24. Pavone Macaluso M and the EORTC Urological Group (1983) Medroxyprogesterone acetate in the treatment of prostatic cancer: preliminary results of EORTC trial 30761 comparing MPA with Stilbestrol and with Cyproterone Acetate. In: Campio L, Robustelli Delia Cua G, Taylor RW (eds) Role of medroxyprogesterone in endocrine related tumors. Raven, New York, pp 183–190Google Scholar
  25. Pavone Maqaluso M, de Voogt HJ, Viggiano G, Barasolo E, Lardennois B, de Pauw M, Sylvester R (1986) Diethylstilbestrol, cyproterone acetate and medroxyprogesterone acetate in the treatment of advanced prostatic cancer: final analysis of a randomised phase III trial of the European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer Urological Group. J Urol 136: 624–631Google Scholar
  26. Poyet P, Labile F (1985) Comparison of the antiandrogenic/androgenic activities of flutamide, cyproterone acetate and megestrol acetate. Mol Cell Endocrinol 42: 283–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Robinson MRG, Hetherington J (1986) The EORTC studies: is there an optimal endocrine management for Ml prostatic cancer? World J Urol 4: 171–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schröder FH, and the EORTC Urological Group (1984) Treatment of prostatic cancer: EORTC experience — preliminary results of prostatic carcinoma trials. Prostate 5: 193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Smith PH (1980) Medical management of prostatic cancer. Some current questions. Eur Urol 6: 65–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Smith PH, Suciu S, Robinson MRG, Richards B, Bastable JRG, Glashan RW, Bouffioux C, Lardennois B, Williams RE, de Pauw M, Sylvester R (1986) A comparison of the effect of diethylstilbestrol with low dose estramustine phosphate in the treatment of advanced prostatic cancer: final analysis of a phase III trial of the European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer. J Urol 136: 619–623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Béland G, Elhilali M, Fradet Yet al (1988) Total androgen blockade for metastatic cancer of the prostate. Am J Clin Oncol 11 [Suppl 2]: 187–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Benson RC, Wear JB, Gill GM (1979) Treatment of stage D hormone-resistant carcinoma of the prostate with estramustine phosphate. J Urol 121: 452–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Brogden RN, Clissold SP (1989) Flutamide. A preliminary review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy in advanced prostatic cancer. Drugs 38: 185–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Crawford ED, Eisenberger MA, McLeod DG et al (1989) A controlled trial of leuprolide with an without flutamide in prostatic carcinoma.. N Engl J Med 321: 419–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Furr BJA (1987) Pharmacological properties and potential clinical utility of ICI 176, 334: a novel non-steroidal, peripherally selective antiandrogen. In: Motta M, Serio M (eds) Hormonal therapy of prostatic diseases: basic and clinical aspects. Medicom Europe, The Netherlands, p 148Google Scholar
  36. Furr BJA (1990) „Casodex“ — preclinical data. Symposium: Prostate Cancer: New approaches to endocrine therapy. European Association of Urology, IX Congress, June 13–16, 1990, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  37. Iversen P, Rose C, Stage JG et al (1989) LHRH analogue as a depot preparation (Zoladex) in the treatment of advanced carcinoma of the prostate followed by orchiectomy as a second line therapy. A phase II study. Scand J Urol Nephrol 23: 177–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Iversen P, Christensen MG, Friis E et al (1990) A phase III trial of Zoladex and flutamide versus orchiectomy in the treatment of patients with advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Cancer 66: 1058–1066PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. de Kernion JN, Murphy GP, Priore R (1988) Comparison of flutamide and emcyt in hormone-refractory metastatic prostatic cancer. Urology 31: 312–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Labrie F, Dupont A, Belanger A (1985) Complete androgen blockade for the treatment of prostate cancer. In: DeVita VT, Hellman S, Rosenber SA (eds) Important advances in oncology. Lippincott, Philadelphia, p 193Google Scholar
  41. Labrie F, Dupont A, Belanger A, Lachance R (1987) Flutamide eliminates the risk of disease flare in prostatic cancer patient treated with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist. J Urol 138: 804–806PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Lund F, Rasmussen F (1988) Flutamide versus stilboestrol in the management of advanced prostatic cancer. Br J Urol 61: 140–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Møller S, Iversen P, Franzmann M-B (1990) Flutamide-induced liver failure. Hepatology 10: 346–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Newling DWW (1990) Current clinical status of „Casodex“. Symposium: Prostate Cancer: New approaches to endocrine therapy. European Association of Urology, IX Congress, June 13–16, 1990, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  45. Tannock IF (1985) Is there evidence that chemotherapy is of benefit to patients with carcinoma of the prostate? J Clin Oncol 3: 1012–1021Google Scholar
  46. de Voogt HJ, Suciu S, Sylvester R et al (1989) Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in patients with advanced prostatic cancer: results from 2 European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer Trials. J Urol 141: 883–888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Waxman J, Man A, Hendry WF et al (1985) Importance of early tumour exacerbation in patients treated with long acting analogues of gonadotrophin releasing hormone for advanced prostatic cancer. Br Med J 291: 1387–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wulff HR (1973) Confidence limits in evaluating controlled therapeutic trials. Lancet 2: 969–971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Akazaki K, Stemmermann GW (1973) Comparative study of latent carcinoma of the prostate among Japanese in Japan and Hawaii. J Natl Cancer Inst 50: 1137–1144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Ando K, Maruoka M et al (1981) Treatment of reactivated prostatic cancer with ifosfamide. Nishinihon J Urol 43: 1299–1303Google Scholar
  51. Baba S (1982) Epidemiology of cancer of the prostate; analysis of countries of high and low incidence. In: Jacobi GH, Hohenfellner R (eds) Prostate cancer, international perspectives in urology. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore London, pp 11–28Google Scholar
  52. Byar DP (1973) The Veterans Administration Cooperative Urological Research Group’s studies of cancer of the prostate. Cancer 32: 1126–1130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Catalona WJ (1984) Epidemiology and etiology. In: Catalona WJ (ed) Prostate cancer. Grune & Stratton, Orlando San Diego New York, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  54. Doll R, Payne P, Waterhouse J (1966) Cancer incidence in five continents. A technical report. International Union Against Cancer (UICC). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  55. Fujii A, Oda Y, Arakawa S et al (1982) Intermittent intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide (Endoxan) for stage D prostatic cancer. Acta Urol Jpn 28: 1127–1132Google Scholar
  56. Hutchison GB (1981) Incidence and etiology of prostate cancer. Urol [Suppl] 17: 4–10Google Scholar
  57. Kalland T, Haukaas S (1981) Effect of treatment with diethylstilbestrol-polyestradiol phosphate or estramustine phosphate (Estracyt) on natural killer cell activity in patients with prostatic cancer. Invest Urol 18: 437–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kawai T, Takeda T et al (1983) Ifosfamide treatment for refractory prostate cancer. Gann No Rinsho 29: 1085–1091Google Scholar
  59. Koiso K, Akina H, Niijima T (1982) Prevention of platelet aggregation in patients with prostatic cancer during estrogen therapy. J Urol 19: 579–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Makino T, Yamanaka H (1983) Clinical study on the effect of Leuprolide in patients with prostate cancer. North Kanto Med J 33: 321–335Google Scholar
  61. Marumo K, Ueno M, Baba S et al (1991) Human alpha-interferon restored natural killer cell activity depressed by diethylstilbestrol disphosphate in patients with carcinoma of the prostate. Jpn J Urol 77 (in press)Google Scholar
  62. Maruoka M, Ando K, Nozumi K et al (1982) Endocrine therapy for prostatic cancer. Jpn J Urol 73: 432–437Google Scholar
  63. Nesbit RM, Baum WC (1950) Endocrine control of prostatic carcinoma. Clinical and statistical survey of 1818 cases. J Am Med Assoc 143: 1317–1320Google Scholar
  64. Niijima T (1982) CIS-DDP Cooperative Phase II Study. Cancer Chemother 9: 46–54Google Scholar
  65. Ohe H, Watanabe H, Saitoh M et al (1984) Evaluation of ultrasonic diagnostic criteria for detecting early prostatic cancer. Med Ultrasonics 11: 105–109Google Scholar
  66. Otaguro K, Ueda K, Niijima T et al (1981) Clinical evaluation of Z 4942 (Ifosfamide) for malignant urological tumors. Acta Urol Jpn 27: 459–469Google Scholar
  67. Resnick MK (1985) Use of transrectal ultrasound in evaluating prostatic cancer. J Urol 134: 314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Sasaki M, Baba S, Tazaki H et al (1991) Combination chemotherapy with cis-platinum, adriamycin and cyclophosphamide in relapsing prostate cancer after endocrine treatment. Acta Urol Jpn (in press)Google Scholar
  69. Shida K, Tsuji I, Shimazaki J et al (1980) Clinical evaluation of chlormadinone acetate for prostatic carcinoma. Acta Urol Jpn 26: 1553–1574Google Scholar
  70. Takayasu H, Ogawa A, Koiso K et al (1978) Results of the treatment of prostate cancer. Jpn J Urol 69: 426–435Google Scholar
  71. Takayasu H, Shida K, Momose S et al (1980) Clinical study on the treatment of prostatic carcinoma with estracyt. Nishinihon J Urol 42: 715–731Google Scholar
  72. Takeuchi H (1984) Effectiveness of 5-fluorouracil combined with hormone in low dose as a basal treatment for prostatic carcinoma. Acta Urol Jpn 30: 1703–1709Google Scholar
  73. Tazaki H (1962) Pathological studies on the prostate glands of Japanese with special reference to latent malignancy. Keio J Med 11: 253–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tazaki H, Baba S, Deguchi N (1984) Analysis of factors affecting on the incidence of prostatic carcinoma. Proceedings of the second. International Forum of Andrology, ParisGoogle Scholar
  75. Watanabe H, Ohe H, Inaba T et al (1984) A mobile mass screening unit for prostate disease. Prostate 5: 559–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Yamanaka H, Makino T, Kumasaka F et al (1984) Clinical effecacy of (D-Leu6)-DESGLY NH2 10-LHRH ethylamide against prostatic cancer. Acta Urol Jpn 30: 545–560Google Scholar
  77. Yoshimoto J, Matsumura Y, Asahi T et al (1981) Combination chemotherapy with vincristine, ifosfamide and pepleomycin in relapsing patients with advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Nishinihon J Urol 43: 425–430Google Scholar
  78. Banalaph T, Varkarakis MJ, Murphy GP (1974) Current status of bilateral adrenalectomy or advanced prostatic carcinoma. Ann Surg 179: 17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Boccardo F, Decensi A, Guaraeri D, and other Italian Prostatic Cancer Project (PONCAP) investigators (1990) Zoladex with or without flutamide in the treatment of locally advanced or metastic prostate cancer: Interim analysis of an ongoing PONCAP study. Eur Urol 18 [Suppl 3]: 48–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Burton S, Trachtenberg J (1986) Effectiveness of antiandrogens in the rat. J Urol 136: 932–935PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Callaway TW, Brachovsky N, Rennie PS, Comeau T (1982) Mechanism of action of androgens and antiandrogens: Effects of antiandrogens on translocation of cytoplasmic androgen receptor and nuclear abundance of dihydrotestosterone. Prostate 3: 599–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Crawford ED (1990) Combination studies with leuprolide. Eur Urol 18, [Suppl 3]: 30–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Crawford ED, Eisenberger MA, McLeod DG, et al. (1989) A controlled trial of leuprolide with and withput flutamide in prostatic carcinoma. N Engl J Med 321 [7]: 419–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Denis L, Keuppens F, Robinson M, et al., Members of the EORTC GU Group (1990) Complete androgen blockade: Data from an EORTC 30853 trial. Semin Urol 8 [3]: 166–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. De Voogt HJ, Klein JG, Studer U, Sylvester R, Pauw M de (1990) The use of LHRH-agonist buserelin, combined with the anti-androgen cyproterone-acetate versus orchidectomy in the treatment of advanced prostatic cancer: Preliminary results of EORTC-Trial 30843. Eur Urol 18 [Suppl 1]: 98, Abstr 188Google Scholar
  86. Di Silverio F, Serio M, D’Eramo G, Sciarra F (1990) Zoladex vs. zoladex plus cyproterons acetate in the treatment of advanced prostatic cancer: A multicenter Italian study. Eur Urol 18 [Suppl 3]: 54–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Ellis WJ, Isaacs JT (1985) Effectiveness of complete versus partial androgen withdrawal therapy for the treatment of prostatic cancer as studied in the Dunning R-3327 system of rat prostatic adenocarcinomas. Cancer Res 45: 6041–6050PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Fourcade RO, Cariou G, Coloby P, et al. (1990) Total androgen blockade with zoladex plus flutamide vs. zoladex alone in advanced prostatic carcinoma: Interim report of a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur Urol 18 [Suppl 3]: 45–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Geller J, Albert J, Vik A (1988) Advantages of total androgen blockade in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Semin Oncol 15, 2 [Suppl 1]: 53–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Harper ME, Pike A, Peeling WB, Griffiths K (1974) Steroids of adrenal origin metabolized by human prostatic tissue both in vivo and in vitro. J Endocrinol 60: 117–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Isaacs JT (1984) The timing of androgen ablation therapy and/or chemotherapy in the treatment of prostatic cancer. Prostate 5, 1: 1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Iversen P, Danish Prostatic Cancer Group (DAPROCA) (1990) Zoladex plus flutamide vs. orchidectomy for advanced prostatic cancer. Eur Urol 18 [Suppl 3]: 41–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Janknegt RA (for the Int. Anandron Study Group) (1990) Results of a double-blind study comparing orchiectomy and anandron (anti-androgen) to orchiectomy and placebo in metastatic prostate cancer. Eur Urol 18 [Suppl 1]: 100Google Scholar
  94. Klein H, Bressel M, Kastendieck H, Voigt KD (1991) biochemical endocrinology of prostate cancer. In: Voigt KD et al. (eds) Endocrine dependent tumors. Raven Press p 131Google Scholar
  95. Labrie F, Veilleux JR (1986) A wide range of sensitivities to androgens develops in cloned shionogi mouse mammary tumor cells. Prostate 8: 293–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Labrie F, Dupont A, Belanger A (1987) LHRH agonists and antiandrogens in prostate cancer. In: Ratliff TL, Catalona WJ (eds) Genitourinary cancer. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Boston, pp 157–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Leitenberger A, Jaeger N, Klippel KF, Altwein JE (1990) Goserelinazetat (Zoladex (R)) gegen Goserelinazetat plus Flutamid (Fugerel (R)) beim fortgeschrittenen Prostatakarzinom: Zwischenbericht einer Phase-III-Studie. Aktuel Urol 21: 238–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Neri R, Florence K, Koziol P, Van Cleave S (1972) A biological profile of a nonsteroidal antiandrogen, SCH 13521 (4′-nitro-3′-trifluoromethylisobutyranilide). Endocrinology 91: 427–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Robinson MRG (1987) Complete androgen blockade: The EORTC experience comparing orchidectomy versus orchidectomy plus cyproterone acetate versus low-dose stilboestrol in the treatment of metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. In: Prostate Cancer, Part A: Research, Endocrine Treatment, and Histopathology. Liss, pp 383-390Google Scholar
  100. Sufrin G, Coffey DS (1973) New model for studying the effect of drugs on prostatic growth. I. Antiandrogens and DNA Synthesis. Invest Urol 11 [1]: 45–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Sufrin G, Coffey DS (1976) Mechanism of action of a new nonsteroidal antiandrogen. Invest Urol 13: 429–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Taylor CD, Trump DL, Citrin DL, Elson P, Messing E, Cummings K, Jordan VC (1989) Survival (S) impact of continued testicular androgen suppression in refractory prostate cancer. Proc Annu Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol 8: 129, Abstr 502Google Scholar
  103. The Canadian Anandron Study Group (1990) Total androgen ablation in the treatment of metastatic prostatic cancer. Semin Urol 8 [3]: 159–165Google Scholar
  104. Leuprolide Study Group (1984) Leuprolide versus Diethylstilbestrol for metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 311: 1281–1286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Mackillop WJ, Ward GK, O’Sullivan B (1986) The use of expert surrogates to evaluate clinical trials in non-small cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer 54: 661–667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Selby P, Chapman JA, Etazadi-Amoli J et al (1984) The development of a method for assessing the quality of life in cancer. Br J Cancer 50: 13–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Stephens RL, Vaughn V, Lane M et al (1984) Adriamycin and cyclophosphamide versus hydroxyurea in advanced prostate cancer. A randomized Southwest Oncology Group Study. Cancer 53: 406–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Warr D, McKinney S, Tannock I (1984) Influence of measurement error on assessment of tumour response to anticancer chemotherapy: proposal for new criteria of tumor response. J Clin Oncol 2: 1040–1046PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Soloway
  • F. H. Schröder
  • Urologische Arbeitsgruppe der E.O.R.T.C
  • W. B. Peeling
  • K. Griffiths
  • Mitglieder der British Prostate Group
  • P. Iversen
  • S. Baba
  • K.-H. Schweickert
  • A. J. W. Goldschmidt
  • I. F. Tannock

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations