Hemodynamic Monitoring in Acute Respiratory Failure

  • S. Strebel
  • D. Scheidegger
Conference paper
Part of the Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine book series (UICM, volume 11)


Three major categories of acute respiratory failure (ARF) have been described [1]. In the first, hypoxemia and hypercapnia occur following acute alveolar hypoventilation. The second group consists of those instances in which ARF is superimposed onto chronic respiratory failure. The third type of ARF is acute and is characterized by severe hypoxemia; it is included under the term “adult respiratory distress syndrome” (ARDS). This collective term emphasizes the fact that a variety of pulmonary insults can result in a similar set of pathophysiological symptoms. The syndrome can be initiated by any of a myriad of factors including: sepsis, shock, trauma, and aspiration of gastric contents [2]. Typically, there is a progressive hypoxemia that is usually unresponsive to intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) and to increasing concentrations of inspired oxygen. Along with hypoxemia, there are changes in lung mechanics as well as simultaneous hemodynamic alterations.


Right Ventricular Acute Respiratory Failure Pulmonary Artery Catheter Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome Hemodynamic Monitoring 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Strebel
  • D. Scheidegger

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