Antarctic Ecosystems: Change and Conservation. Review of the Fifth Symposium on Antarctic Biology

  • G. Hempel


The SCAR Symposia on Antarctic Biology are planned and organized by the Working Group on Biology of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). The first symposium was held in Paris in 1962, followed by symposia in Cambridge, UK (1968) and Washington, DC (1974) and Wilderness, South Africa (1983). Except for the first one the SCAR Biology Symposia were directed to ecology in a broad sense, as reflected by the titles of the third (Adaptations within Antarctic Ecosystems) and the fourth symposium (Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs).


Southern Ocean Antarctic Ecosystem Subantarctic Island Crabeater Seal Antarctic Biology 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Hempel
    • 1
  1. 1.Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und MeeresforschungBremerhavenGermany

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