Advertisement

Effects of Air Impurities on Forest Growth and Tree Mortality: Results Based on a Computer Model

  • Risto Lauhanen
  • Seppo Kellomäki
  • Taneli Kolström
Conference paper

Summary

The effects of air impurities on the growth and development of natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands growing on Myrtillus site were studied with the help of a process-oriented model assuming that the dynamics of the needle population and fine roots, the photosynthetic rate of the needles and the decomposition rate of the litter and humus are susceptible to the effects of air impurities, thus enhancing the risk of insect attack. Needle loss of less than 20% resulted in no substantial loss in productivity, which was not the case with a needle loss of 30%, where the productivity was 86% of that of the stand not affected by air impurities. Productivity was also decreased by a reduction in the photosynthetic rate being about 98% for a reduction of 10% and about 94% for a reduction 20% of that not affected by air impurities. Nitrogen depositions of 20 and 30 kg ha−1 yr−1 increased productivity by 8% and 16%, respectively, compared with a nitrogen deposition of 10 kg ha−1 yr−1. The reduction in fine roots and the decomposition rate of litter and humus decreased productivity only slightly, resulting in a small change in the number of dead trees. The combination of all the mechanisms showed that a needle loss of 30% and a reduction in the photosynthetic and decomposition rate and fine roots by as much as 20% in a constant nitrogen deposition of 10 kg ha−1 yr−1 reduced productivity to as low as 55% of that in the same nitrogen deposition but unaffected by other mechanisms. Decreasing productivity substantially increased the risk of insect attack, which resulted in excess tree mortality and, consequently, reduction in the productivity of the forest ecosystem.

Keywords

Fine Root Photosynthetic Rate Decomposition Rate Radial Growth Tree Mortality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aber, J. D. and Melillo, J. M.: 1982, Fornite: A computer model of organic matter and nitrogen dynamics in forest ecosystems. University of Wisconsin Research Bull. R3130Google Scholar
  2. Aber, J. D., Hendrey, G. R., Francis A. J., Botkin, D. B. and Melillo, J. M.: 1982, ‘Potential effects of acid precipitation on soil nitrogen and productivity of forest ecosystems’. In: D’itri, F. M.(ed.) Acid precipitation. Effects on ecological systems. Ann Arbor Science Publishen, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, pp 411–433Google Scholar
  3. Arovaara, H., Hari, P. and Kuusela, K.: 1984, Commun. Inst. For. Fenn. 122, 1Google Scholar
  4. Berg, B., Staaf, H. and Wessen, B.: 1987, Scand. J. For. Res. 2, 399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Botkin, D. B., Janak, J. F. and Wallis, J. R.: 1972, J. Ecol. 60, 849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Christiansen, E.: 1981, Granbarkbillens erobrongesevne, sett i forhold til vertstreets vitalitet og tilvekst, Rapp.’ Norsk. Inst. Skogforsk. 2Google Scholar
  7. Entry, J. A., Cromack, K., Jr., Stafford, S. G. and Castellano, M. A.: 1987, Can. J. For. Res. 17, 865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ericsson, A., Hellqvist, C., Lângström, B., Larsson, S. and Tenow, O.: 1985, J. of Appl. Ecol. 22, 105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Horn, N. M.: 1985, Effects of air pollution and acid rain on fungal and bacterial diseases of trees. A literature review,Rijksinstituut voor onderzoek in de bosen landschapsbouw “De Dorschkamp” Wageningen. Uitvoerig verslag Band 20 (1)Google Scholar
  10. Horntvedt, R.: 1970, J. For. Utiliz. 78, 237Google Scholar
  11. Huttunen, S.: 1985, ‘Ecophysiological effects of air pollution on conifers’, in Proc. Symposium on the effects of air pollution on forest and water ecosystems. Helsinki April 23–24, Foundation for Research of Natural Resources of Finland. pp 25–29Google Scholar
  12. Ilvessalo, Y.: 1920, Growth and yield tables for pine, spruce and birch forests of southern Finland (in Finnish). Suomen metsäyhdistys Tapio. J. Sumelius’en perillisten kirjapaino. HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  13. Jakobsons, A.: 1970, Sambandet median trädkronans diameter och andra triidfaktorer, trämst briisthöjdsdiametern. Analyser grundade p¢ riksskogstaxeringens provtr idsmaterial, Inst. för skogstaxering, Skogshögsk. Rapp. Upps. 14Google Scholar
  14. Jalkanen, R.: 1986, Commun. Inst. For. Fenn. 126, 1Google Scholar
  15. Jukola-Sulonen, E-L., Mikkola, K., Nevalainen, S. and Yli-Kojola, K.: 1987, Vitality of conifers in Finland during the years 1985–1986 (in Finnish). Metsäntutk. lait. tiedonantoja 256, Finnish Forest Institute, Helsinki, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  16. Katainen, H-S., Mäkinen, E., Jokinen, J., Karjalainen, R. and Kellomäki, S.: 1987, Environ. Poll. 46, 241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Katainen, H-S., Mäkinen, E., Jokinen, J., Karjalainen, R. and Kellomäki, S.: 1987, Environ. Poll. 46, 241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kercher, J.R. and Axelrod, M.C.: 1982, Modelling the individuel and community effects of air pollution stress in a western coniferous forest, UCRL-87747, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, USAGoogle Scholar
  19. Larsson, S., Oren, IL, Waring, R. H. and Barrett, J. W.: 1983, Forest Sci. 29, 395Google Scholar
  20. Lipas, E.: 1988, ‘Nitrogen fertilizations in forests’, in New information concerning our forests (in Finnish). ILME-project, January 1988. Forest Research Institute of Finland. pp 37–38Google Scholar
  21. Materna, J.: 1985, ‘Results of the research into air pollutants impact on forests in Czechoslovakia’, in Proc. Symposium on the effects of air pollution on forest and water ecosystems. Helsinki 23–24 April, Helsinki, Foundation for Research of Natural Resources in Finland, pp 127–137Google Scholar
  22. Mattson, W. J. and Addy, N. D.: 1975, Science 190, 515Google Scholar
  23. Mitchell, H.L. and Chandler, R.F.: 1939, Black Rock For. Bull. 11 1 Mälkönen, P.: 1974, Commun. Inst. For. Fenn. 84 Google Scholar
  24. Nilsson, J. and Grennfelt, P.: 1988, Critical loads for sulphur and nitrogen. Report from a workshop held at Skokloster, Sweden, 19–24 March, 1988. Nordic Council of Ministers, Milorapport 1980, 15 Google Scholar
  25. Sarvas, R.: 1964, Conifers (in Finnish). WSOY. Porvoo, Finland Schutt, P. and Cowling, E. B.: 1985, Plant Disease 69, 548Google Scholar
  26. Smith, W. H.: 1981, Air pollution and forests. Interactions between air contaminants and forest ecosystems, Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Sutinen, S.: 1987, Eur. J. For. Path. 17, 362CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Risto Lauhanen
    • 1
  • Seppo Kellomäki
    • 1
  • Taneli Kolström
    • 1
  1. 1.Fac. of ForestryUniv. of JoensuuJoensuuFinland

Personalised recommendations