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Application of Two Soil Acidification Models to Historical Soil Chemistry Data from Sweden

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Summary

Soil chemistry data from southern Sweden, first sampled in 1949 and resampled in 1984, are used to test two models of the RAINS (Regional Acidification INformation and Simulation) model for soil acidification. Both versions were developed for predicting the acidification of forest soils on a large regional scale. The first one is part of the present RAINS model, designed at IIASA as a tool for evaluating policies for controlling the acidification of Europe’s environment. The second model, SMART (Simulation Model for Acidification’s Regional Trends), comprises a more detailed description of the cation exchange processes and will replace the first in the overall RAINS system. The soil chemistry data from southern Sweden offer a unique opportunity to test these models, since they provide a detailed description of the changes of the pool of base cations as well as the soil pH at different depths in the soil profile in 1949 and 1984. Results show that the changes in the amount of exchangeable base cations are predicted reasonably well by both models. The order of magnitude of the pH changes is predicted in the shallow profiles of the most acid soils, but they are clearly underestimated when deeper soil layers are included. The findings suggest that even rather simple soil acidification models can describe the changes of base cation reservoirs in soils. Describing soil pH, an “intensive” variable, is clearly more difficult. Since these models are driven by acid deposition and reproduce the observed base cation depletion reasonably well, the deposition of acidifying compounds is found to be the main source of soil acidification at these sites.

Keywords

  • Cation Exchange Capacity
  • Soil Acidification
  • Base Cation
  • Deep Soil Layer
  • Base Saturation

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© 1989 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

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Posch, M., Falkengren-Grerup, U., Kauppi, P. (1989). Application of Two Soil Acidification Models to Historical Soil Chemistry Data from Sweden. In: Kämäri, J., Brakke, D.F., Jenkins, A., Norton, S.A., Wright, R.F. (eds) Regional Acidification Models. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-83994-8_18

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-83994-8_18

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-642-83996-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-642-83994-8

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