Evolution of Flight
There are two major conflicting hypotheses about the origin of powered flight in vertebrates, the arboreal (“trees-down”) and cursorial (“ground-up”) theories. According to the arboreal theory, powered flight in birds, bats and pterosaurs evolved via gliding in tree-living animals, while the cursorial theory holds that flapping flight in birds evolved in ground-running and jumping animals without a gliding intermediate.
KeywordsAerodynamic Model Vertical Lift Modern Bird Wing Stroke Body Drag
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