Dichotomous Effects of Cyclophosphamide in Murine Coxsackievirus B3-Induced Myocarditis
Enteroviruses, especially of the Coxsackie group, seem to be major causative agents for myocarditis in humans. Murine Coxsackie B3-induced myocarditis resembles the human disease closely. The immune system plays an essential role in mediating the disease . As in humans, cellular and humoral immune reactions to the myocardium have been described. In BALB/c mice, Huber et al. demonstrated cytotoxic T lymphocytes to virally infected and uninfected cardiac myocytes . Antibodies to cardiac myosin of the IgG isotype and other epitopes have been demonstrated to be responsible especially for the chronic stage of Coxsackie B3-induced murine myocarditis . In humans, antibodies to myocardial cells can be found at a high incidence in the serum of patients with acute myocarditis and postmyocarditic heart muscle disease [9, 10]. Monoclonal antibodies cross-reacting between Coxsackie B3 epitopes and myocardium have recently been described .
KeywordsFormalin Estrogen Titration Testosterone Progesterone
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Buie C, Lodge P, Herzum M, Huber SA (1987) Genetics of coxsackie virus B3 and encephalomyocardits virus-induced myocarditis in mice. Eur Heart J 8 [Suppl J]: 399–401Google Scholar
- 4.Herum M, Huber SA (1986) Immunosuppressive Therapie der Virusmyokarditis. Schwerpunktmed 9: 9–13Google Scholar
- 6.Huber SA, Simpson K, Weller A, Herzum M (1988) Immunopathogenic mechanisms in experimental myocarditis: evidence for autoimmunity to the virus receptor and antigenic mimicry between virus and cardiocyte. In: Schultheiss HP (ed) New concepts in viral heart disease. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 177–187Google Scholar
- 8.Lyden DC, Huber SA (1984) Aggravation of coxsackievirus, group B, type 3-induced myocarditis and increase in cellular immunity to myocarditis and increase in cellular immunity to myocyte antigens in pregnant BALB/c mice and animals treated with progesterone. Cell Immunol 87: 462–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Sym SN, Miller SD, Claman HN (1977) Immune suppression with supraoptimal doses of antigen in contact sensitivity: I. Demonstration of suppressor cells and their sensitivity to cyclophosphamide. J Immunol 119: 240–244Google Scholar
- 12.Woodruff JF (1980) Viral myocarditis: a review. Am J Pathol 101: 426–484Google Scholar