Immunopathogenic Mechanisms of HIV Infection

  • A. S. Fauci
  • Z. F. Rosenberg


The outcome of infection of CD4-bearing target cells with HIV is dependent on complex interactions between viral and cellular factors (Haseltine 1988). In addition to genes which code for the structural proteins of the virion and the enzymes which facilitate the transcription of viral RNA into DNA and the integration of the viral DNA into the host cell genome (Varmus 1988), the HIV genome contains at least six genes which act in distinct ways to regulate HIV replication. For several of these regulatory genes, the mechanism of action involves the long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences of the HIV genome. For example, the target for tat—mediated enhancement of viral replication is the trans-acting responsive (TAR) region of the LTR (Rosen et al 1985). The nef gene product has also been shown to regulate viral transcription by interacting with the negative regulatory element (NRE) of the LTR (Ahmad and Venkatesan 1988). In addition to TAR and NRE, the HIV LTR contains other regulatory sequences such as the TATAA promotor sequence, the NFkB core enhancer elements, and Sp-1 binding sites (Starcich et al 1985).


Long Terminal Repeat Chloramphenicol Acetyl Transferase Reverse Transcriptase Activity Negative Regulatory Element Chloramphenicol Acetyl Transferase Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aderka D, Holtmann H, Toker L, Hahn T, Wallach D (1986) J Immunol 136:2938–2942PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aggarwal BB, Eessalu TE (1987) J Biol Chem 262:16450–16455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad N, Venkatesan S (1988) Science 241:1481–1485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albrecht MA, DeLuca NA, Byrn RA, Schaffer PA, Hammer SM (1989) J Virol 63:1861–1868PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barre-Sinoussi F, Mathur-Wagh U, Rey F, Brun-Vezinet F, Yancovitz SR, Rouzioux C, Montagnier L, Mildvan D, Chermann JC (1985) JAMA 253:1737–1739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cerami A, Beutler B (1988) Immunol Today 9:28–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clouse KA, Powell D, Washington I, Poli G, Strebel K, Farrar W, Barstad P, Kovacs J, Fauci AS, Folks TM (1989a) J Immunol 142:431–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Clouse KA, Robbins PB, Fornie B, Ostrove JM, Fauci AS (1989b) J Immunol 143:470–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Davis MG, Kenney SC, Kamine J, Pagano JS, Huang ES (1987) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:8642–8646PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dinter H, Chiu R, Imagawa M, Karin M, Jones KA (1987) EMBO J 6:4067–4071PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Duh EJ, Maury WJ, Folks TM, Fauci AS, Rabson AB (in press) Proc Natl Acad Sci USAGoogle Scholar
  12. Fauci AS (1988) Science 239:617–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Folks T, Benn S, Rabson A, Theodore T, Hoggan MD, Martin M, Lightfoote M, Sell K (1985) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:4539–4543PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Folks T, Powell DM, Lightfoote MM, Benn S, Martin MA, Fauci AS (1986a) Science 231:600–602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Folks T, Kelly J, Benn S, Kinter A, Justement J, Gold J, Redfield R, Sell KW, Fauci AS (1986b) J Immunol 136:4049–4053PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Folks TM, Justement J, Kinter A, Dinarello CA, Fauci AS (1987) Science 238:800–802PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Folks TM, Justement J, Kinter A, Schnittman S, Orenstein J, Poli G, Fauci AS (1988) J Immunol 140:1117–1122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Folks TM, Clouse KA, Justement J, Rabson A, Duh E, Kehrl JH, Fauci AS (1989) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:2365–2368PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M, Shearer GM, Kaplan M, Haynes BF, Palker TJ, Redfield R, Oleske J, Safai B, White G, Foster P, Markhara PD (1984) Science 224:500–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Geelen JL, Minnaar RP, Boom R, Van der Noordaa J, Goudsmit J (1988) J Gen Virol 69:2913–2917PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gendelman HE, Phelps W, Feigenbaum L, Ostrove JM, Adachi A, Howley PM, Khoury G, Ginsberg HS, Martin MA (1986) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:9759–9763PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gimble JM, Duh E, Ostrove JM, Gendelman HE, Max EE, Rabson AB (1988) J Virol 62:4104–4112PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Harada S, Koyanagi Y, Nakashima H, Kobayashi N, Yamamoto N (1986) Virology 154:249–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Haseltine WA (1988) J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1:217–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Horvat RT, Wood G, Balachandran N (1989) J Virol 63:970–973PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Ito M, Baba M, Sato A, Hirabayashi K, Tanabe F, Shigeta S, De Clercq E (1989) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 158:307–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kaufman JD, Valandra G, Roderiquez G, Bushar G, Giri C, Norcross MA (1987) Mol Cell Biol 7:3759–3766PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kawakami K, Scheidereit C, Roeder RG (1988) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:4700–4704PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kehrl JH, Alvarez-Mon M, Delsing GA, Fauci AS (1987) Science 238:1144–1146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kenney S, Kamine J, Markovitz D, Fenrick R, Pagano J (1988) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:1652–1656PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Koyanagi Y, O’Brien WA, Zhao JQ, Golde DW, Gasson JC, Chen IS (1988) Science 241:1673–1675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lahdevirta J, Maury CP, Teppo AM, Repo H (1988) Am J Med 85:289–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Leist TP, Frei K, Kam-Hansen S, Zinkernagel RM, Fontana A (1988) J Exp Med 167:1743–1748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Levy JA, Hoffman AD, Kramer SM, Landis JA, Shimabukuro JM, Oshiro LS (1984) Science 225:840–842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lowenthai JW, Ballard DW, Bohnlein E, Greene WC (1989a) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:2331–2335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lowenthai JW, Ballard DW, Bogerd H, Bohnlein E, Greene WC (1989b) J Immunol 142:3121–3128Google Scholar
  37. Lusso P, Ensoli B, Markham PD, Ablashi DV, Salahuddin SZ, Tschachler E, Wong-Staal F, Gallo RC (1989) Nature 337:370–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Margolick JB, Volkman DJ, Folks TM, Fauci AS (1987) J Immunol 138:1719–1723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. McDougal JS, Mawle A, Cort SP, Nicholson JK, Cross GD, Scheppler-Campbell JA, Hicks D, Sligh J (1985) J Immunol 135: 3151–3162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Mosca JD, Bednarik DP, Raj NB, Rosen CA, Sodroski JG, Haseltine WA, Pitha PM (1987a) Nature 325:67–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mosca JD, Bednarik DP, Raj NB, Rosen CA, Sodroski JG, Haseltine WA, Hayward GS, Pitha PM (1987b) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:7408–7412PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nabel G, Baltimore D (1987) Nature 326:711–713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nabel GJ, Rice SA, Knipe DM, Baltimore D (1988) Science 239:1299–1302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nahmias AJ, Kibrick S, Rosan RC (1964) J Immunol 93:69–74Google Scholar
  45. Nelson JA, Reynolds-Kohler C, Oldstone MB, Wiley CA (1988) Virology 165: 286–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Osborn L, Kunkel S, Nabel GJ (1989) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:2336–2340PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ostrove JM, Leonard J, Weck KE, Rabson AB, Gendelman HE (1987) J Virol 61:3726–3732PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Rando RF, Pellett PE, Luciw PA, Bohan CA, Srinivasan A (1987) Oncogene 1:13–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Rosen CA, Sodroski JG, Haseltine WA (1985) Cell 41:813–823PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Roux-Lombard P, Modoux C, Cruchaud A, Dayer JM (1989) Clin Immunol Immunopathol 50:374–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Seto E, Yen TS, Peterlin BM, Ou JH (1988) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:8286–8290PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Siekevitz M, Josephs SF, Dukovich M, Peffer N, Wong-Staal F, Greene WC (1987) Science 238:1575–1578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stanley SK, Folks TM, Fauci AS (in press) AIDS Res Hum RetrovirusesGoogle Scholar
  54. Starcich B, Ratner L, Josephs SF, Okamoto T, Gallo RC, Wong-Staal F (1985) Science 227:538–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tong-Starksen SE, Luciw PA, Peterlin BM (1987) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:6845–6849PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Twu JS, Robinson WS (1989) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:2046–2050PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Valerie K, Delers A, Bruck C, Thiriart C, Rosenberg H, Debouck C, Rosenberg M (1988) Nature 333:78–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Varmus H (1988) Science 240:1427–1435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zack JA, Cann AJ, Lugo JP, Chen IS (1988) Science 240:1026–1029PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zagury D, Bernard J, Leonard R, Cheynier R, Feldman M, Sarin PS, Gallo RC (1986) Science 231:850–853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. S. Fauci
  • Z. F. Rosenberg

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations