Sympatho-Adrenal System in Congestive Heart Failure

  • P. K. Shah
Part of the Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine book series (UICM, volume 6)


Congestive heart failure is a common clinical syndrome with a complex pathophysiologic basis. The clinical syndrome is the end-result of a variety of cardiovascular diseases that alter contractile function, diastolic function, or the loading conditions of the heart. While the clinical severity of symptoms and effort intolerance in heart failure bear only an inconsistent relationship with global descriptors of ventricular function (ejection fraction, filling pressures, cardiac output), a fundamental disturbance in heart failure is inadequate tissue perfusion at rest and/or during exercise. A number of compensatory neurohumoral mechanisms are activated in heart failure in an attempt to preserve arterial perfusion pressure in the face of declining pump function but therein lies the paradox of heart failure. These some neurohumoral factors eventually contribute to the clinical and hemodynamic derangements that characterize the patient with heart failure. Some of these neurohumoral derangements may in fact contribute to morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure.


Heart Failure Congestive Heart Failure Chronic Heart Failure Tyrosine Hydroxylase Chronic Congestive Heart Failure 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

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  • P. K. Shah

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