Effects of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Biochemical and Functional Aspects of Endothelial and Blood Cells

  • R. Paoletti
  • P. Maderna
  • C. Galli
  • E. Tremoli
Conference paper
Part of the Recent Developments in Lipid and Lipoprotein Research book series (LIPID)

Abstract

The three major families of unsaturated fatty acids are those of oleic acid (n-9), linoleic acid (n-6) and linolenic acid (n-3). Linoleic and linolenic acid, the 18-carbon essential fatty acids obtained from the diet, are converted through desaturation and elongation steps to the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The 20-carbon PUFAs, dihomogammalinolenic acid (DHGLA 20:3 n-6), arachidonic acid (AA 20:4 n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5 n-3), derived from linolenic acid, are the precursors of the prostaglandin series 1,2 and 3, respectively.

Keywords

Permeability Toxicity Arthritis Prostaglandin Triglyceride 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hamberg M, Swensson J, Samuelsson B (1975) Thromboxanes: a new group of biologically active compounds derived from prostaglandin endoperoxides. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72:2994–2998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moncada S, Vane JR (1978) Pharmacology and endogenous roles of prostaglandin endoperoxide, thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin. Pharmacol Rev 30: 293–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Needleman P, Raz A, Minkes MS, Ferrendelli JA, Sprecher H (1979) Triene prostaglandins: prostacyclin and thromboxane biosynthesis and unique biological properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 944–948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fischer S, Weber PC (1983) Thromboxane A3 (TXA3) is formed in human platelets after dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3). Biochem Biophys Res Comm 16: 1091–1099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Spector AA, Kaduce TL, Figard TH et al. (1983) Eicosapentaenoic acid and prostacyclin production by cultured human endothelial cells. J Lip Res 24: 1595–1604Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bang HO, Dyerberg J (1980) Lipid metabolism and ischemic heart disease in Greenland Eskimos. In: Draper HH (ed) Advanced nutrition research, vol 3. Plenum, New York, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dyerberg J, Bang HO (1979) Haemostatic function and platelet polyunsaturated fatty acid in Eskimos. Lancet ii: 433–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kromann N, Green A (1980) Epidemiological studies in the Upernavik district, Greenland. Acta Med Scand 208: 401–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dyerberg J, Bang HO, Hjorne N (1975) Fatty acid composition of the plasma lipids in Greenland Eskimos. Am J Clin Nutr 28: 958–966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bang HO, Dyerberg J (1980) The bleeding tendency in Greenland Eskimos. Dan Med Bull 27: 202–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Culp BR, Lands WEM, Luchesi BR, Pitt B, Romson J (1980) The effect of dietary supplementation of fish oil on experimental infarction. Prostaglandins 20: 1021–1031PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Socini A, Galli C, Colombo C, Tremoli E (1983) Fish oil administration as a supplement to a corn oil containing diet affects arterial prostacyclin more than thromboxane formation in the rat. Prostaglandins 25: 693–710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Morita I, Saito Y, Chang WC, Murota S (1983) Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic acid or arachidonic acid metabolism in cultured murine aortic smooth muscle cells, vessel walls and platelets. Lipids 1842–1849Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bruckner GG, Lokesh B, German B, Kinsella JE (1984) Biosynthesis of prostanoids, tissue fatty acid composition and thrombotic parameters in rats fed diets enriched with docosahexaenoic or eicosapentaenoic acid. Thromb Res 34: 479–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Morisaki N, Shiriomiya M, Matsuoka N et al. (1983) In vivo effects of cis-5,8,11,14,17-20:5 (n-3) and cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-22:6 (n-3) on serum lipoproteins, platelet aggregation and lipid metabolism in the aorta of rats. Tohoku J Exp Med 141: 397–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hornstra G, Chris-Hazelhof E, Hadderman E et al. (1981) Fish oil feeding lowers thromboxane and prostacyclin production by rat platelet and aorta and does not result in the formation of prostaglandin I3. Prostaglandins 21: 727–738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Croset M, Lagarde M (1986) In vitro incorporation and metabolism of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in human platelets. Effect on aggregation. Thromb Haemost 56: 57–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Siess W, Scherer B, Bohling B, Roth P, Kurzmann I, Weber PC (1980) Platelet-membrane fatty acids, platelet aggregation, and thromboxane formation during a mackerel diet. Lancet I: 441–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Goodnight SH, Harris WS, Connor WE (1981) The effects of dietary ω-3 fatty acids on platelet composition and function in man: a prospective study. Blood 58: 880–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Von Schacky C, Fisher S, Weber PC (1985) Long-term effects of dietary marine ω-3 fatty acids upon plasma and cellular lipids, platelet function and eicosanoids formation in humans. J Clin Invest 76: 1626–1631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Knapp HR, Reilly IAG, Alessandrini P, Fitzgerald GA (1986) In vivo indexes of platelet and vascular function during fish-oil administration in patients with atherosclerosis. N Engl J Med 314: 937–942PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Terano T, Hirai A, Hamazaki T et al. (1983) Effect of oral administration of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid on platelet function, blood viscosity and red cell deformability in healthy human subjects. Atherosclerosis 46: 321–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Thorngren M, Gustafson A (1981) Effects of 11-week increase in dietary eicosapentaenoic acid on bleeding time, lipids, and platelet aggregation. Lancet ii: 1190–1193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hamberg M, Samuelsson B (1974) Prostaglandin endoperoxides: novel transformations of arachidonic acid in human platelets. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71: 3400–3404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hamberg M (1980) On the mechanism of the oxygenation of arachidonic acid by human platelet lipoxygenase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 95:1090–1095PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Borgeat P, Samuelsson B (1979) Arachidonic acid metabolism in polymorphonuclear leukocytes: effects of ionophore A23187. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 2148–2152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bjork J, Hedqvist P, Arfors KE (1982) Increase in vascular permeability induced by leukotriene B and the role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Inflammation 6:189–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Terano T, Salmon JA, Higgs GA, Moncada S (1986) Eicosapentaenoic acid as a modulator of inflammation. Biochem Pharmacol 35: 779–785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lee TH, Hoover RL, Williams JD et al. (1985) Effect of dietary enrichment with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on in vitro neutrophil and monocyte leukotriene generation and neutrophil function. N Engl J Med 312: 1217–1224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kremer JM, Michaelek AV, Lininger L et al. (1985) Effects of manipulation of dietary fatty acids on clinical manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet i: 184–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Paoletti
  • P. Maderna
  • C. Galli
  • E. Tremoli

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations