Respiratory Support in Patients with Heart Failure

  • J. Räsänen
  • P. Nikki
  • I. T. Väisänen
Part of the Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine book series (UICM, volume 2)


Need for respiratory support in patients with heart failure is usually related to the cardiac disease and develops with sudden left ventricular (LV) decompensation. The triggering event may be coronary spasm or thrombosis that impairs myocardial oxygen delivery, or increase in cardiac work unmatched by the coronary circulation. Even a transient ischemic episode may lead to severe respiratory failure by precipitating a sequence of detrimental cardiopulmonary interactions. Progressive pulmonary dysfunction, then, will cause myocardial oxygen imbalance to persist or to appear. Similarly, inappropriately treated respiratory insufficiency of non-cardiac origin may cause acute LV decompensation in a susceptible individual. Therefore, the problem of combined cardiac and respiratory failure is relatively common and not new, even though its pathophysiology and therapeutic guidelines have been established only recently. We present a review of the essential pathophysiological disorders involved in cardiogenic pulmonary dysfunction and discuss the rationale for the use of various respiratory support modalities in patients with acute respiratory failure and LV decompensation.


Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Respiratory Support Intrathoracic Pressure Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Acute Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Räsänen
  • P. Nikki
  • I. T. Väisänen

There are no affiliations available

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