Numerical 2D Air Flow Simulation over a Backward-Facing Step and a Block

  • Rolf Lövgren
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Engineering book series (LNENG, volume 18)


This report demonstrates the application of the PHOENICS code to the analysis of two typical flow situations used in the study of recirculating flows, the 2-D backward-facing step flow and the 2-D (square) block flow. The findings are focused on the positions and lengths of the recirculating zones behind the step and block respectively. The results are compared with both experimental results and other numerical (TEACH) simualtions.

The results are competitive with the TEACH simulations referred to, without any streamline curvature corrections made to the standard k-ɛ model of turbulence. The agreement with experimental values are typically within -5%, in the worst case -24%, where small 3-D effects were reported.

The accuracy of the k-ɛ model is obscured by the numerical inaccuracy of the upwind differencing method, which also play its part in, the difficulty to get grid-independent solutions.


Recirculation Zone Fine Mesh Coarse Mesh Turbulent Shear Flow Numerical Inaccuracy 
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Litterature References

  1. (1).
    Lövgren R. 1985. “Numerical, two-dimensional air flow simulation over a backward-facing step and a block. (Experiences of the PHOENICS computer code.”, Research Report TULEA 1985:15, WREL (Water Resources Engineering Luleå), Serie A no 135.Google Scholar
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    Aldam C.M. & Markatos N.C., 1983. “Numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations for laminar flow over a forward-facing step”, CHAM Technical Report TR/96, CHAM Ltd, London.Google Scholar
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    Ilegbusi J.O. & Spalding D.B., 1983. “Turbulent flow downstream of a backward-facing step”, 4 th Int. Symp. on Turbulent Shear Flows, Karlsruhe, F.R., Germany, pp. 18.20–18.25Google Scholar
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    Gunton M.C. Rosten H.I., Spalding D.B. & Tatchell D.G., 1983 “PHOENICS an instruction manual”, Techn. Report CHAM TR/75, CHAM Ltd, London.Google Scholar
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    Armaly B.F., Durst F., Pereira J.C.F. & Schbnung B. 1983. “Experimental and theoretical investigation of backwardfacing step flow”, J. Fluid. Mech., vol 127, pp. 473–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Durst F. & Rastogi A.K., 1979. “Turbulent flow over two-dimensional fence”, 2nd Int. Symp. on Turbulent Shear Flows, July 1979, London, pp. 16.30–16.38.Google Scholar
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    Gosman A.D. & Pun W.M., 1974. “Lecture notes for course entitled: “Calculation of recirculating flow”. Heat Transfer Rep. HTS/74/2, Imperial College, London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rolf Lövgren
    • 1
  1. 1.ASEA STAL ABFinspongSweden

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