Occupation and Malignant Melanoma of the Skin

  • D. F. Austin
  • P. Reynolds
Part of the Recent Results in Cancer Research book series (RECENTCANCER, volume 102)


Occupational risks for malignant melanoma (MM) of the skin have not been systematically studied. Epidemiologic research on MM has focused on sunlight exposure, even though available evidence shows that, unlike most other cancers in general and other cancers of the skin in particular, MM tends to be associated with indoor work, upper socioeconomic status, and particularly technical-professional occupations (Beral and Robinson 1981; Lee and Strickland 1980; Teppo et al. 1980). These findings have been largely dismissed by appealing to postulated differences in leisure-time sun exposure in these occupational groups. New evidence suggests, however, that the occupational epidemiology of MM is an area in serious need of further study.


Standardize Mortality Ratio Record Linkage Occupational Risk Occupational Risk Factor Swedish Cancer Registry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



proportionate mortality ratio


standardized mortality ratio


odds ratio


malignant melanoma


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adelstein AM (1972) Occupational mortality: cancer. Ann Occup Hyg 15: 53–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong BK, McNulty JC, Levitt U, Williams KA, Hobbs MST (1979) Mortality in gold and coal miners in Western Australia with special reference to lung cancer. Br J Ind Med 36: 199–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Austin DF (1982) Evaluation of the occurrence of malignant melanoma in the Caltrans headquarters building: a report to the department of transportation. Resource for Cancer Epidemiology EmeryvilleGoogle Scholar
  4. Austin DF, Reynolds P (1984) A case-control study of malignant melanoma among Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory employees: final report submitted to the LLNL, July 3, 1984. Resource for Cancer Epidemiology, EmeryvilleGoogle Scholar
  5. Austin DF, Reynolds PJ (Manscript in preparation) Occupations at increased risk for malignant melanoma of the skin: A proportional incidence analysis.Google Scholar
  6. Austin DF, Reynolds PJ, Synder M, Biggs MW, Stubbs HA (1981) Malignant melanoma among employees of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Lancet 2: 712–716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bahn AK, Rosenwaike I, Herrmann N, Grover P, Stellman J, O’Leary K (1976) Melanoma after exposure to PCB’s. N Engl J Med 295: 450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Beral V, Robinson N (1981) The relationship of malignant melanoma, basal and squamous skin cancers to indoor and outdoor work. Br J Cancer 44: 886–891PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blot WJ, Brinton LA, Fraumeni JF, Stone BS (1977) Cancer mortality in U.S. counties with petroleum industries. Science 198: 51–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Caldwell GG, Kelley D, Zack M, Falk H, Heath CW (1983) Mortality and cancer frequency among military nuclear test (Smoky) participants, 1957 through 1979. JAMA 250 (5): 620–624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Committee for the Cancer-Environment Registry (1980) The Swedish Cancer Environment Registry 1961–1973. National Board of Health and Welfare, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  12. Decoufle P, Stanislawczyk K (1977) A retrospective survey of cancer in relation to occupation. DHEW (NIOSH), Cincinnati (Publication no. 77–178 )Google Scholar
  13. Dubrow R, Wegman DH (1984) Cancer and occupation in Massachusetts: a death certificate study. Am I Ind Med 6: 207–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Elashoff R, Hunter TD, Mohilef E (1982) Final report on epidemiology of melanoma, NICHD Contract HD-8–2803. University of California at Los Angeles, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  15. Greene MH, Hoover RH, Eck RL, Fraumeni JF (1979) Cancer mortality among printing plant workers. Environ Res 20: 66–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hadjimichael OC, Ostfeld AM, D’Atri DA, Brubaker RE (1983) Mortality and cancer incidence experience of employees in a nuclear fuels fabrication plant. J Occup Med 25 (1): 48–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Heldaas SS, Langard SL, Andersen A (1984) Incidence of cancer among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride workers. Br J Ind Med 41: 25–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hilt B, Langard S, Andersen A, Rosenberg J (to be published). Asbestos exposure, smoking habits and cancer incidence among production and maintenance workers in an electrochemical plant.Google Scholar
  19. Hoar SK, Pell S (1981) A retrospective cohort study of mortality and cancer incidence among chemists. J Occup Med 23 (7): 485–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Holman CDJ (1982) Risk factors in the causation of human malignant melanoma of the skin. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Western Australia.Google Scholar
  21. Holmberg B, Westerholm P, Maasing R, Kestrup L, Gumaelius K, Holmlund L, Englund A (1983) Retrospective cohort study of two plants in the Swedish rubber industry. Scand J Work Environ Health 9 [Suppl 2]: 59–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hoover R, Fraumeni JF (1975) Cancer mortality in U.S. counties with chemical industries. Environ Res 9: 197–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lee JAH, Strickland D (1980) Malignant melanoma: social status and outdoor work. Br J Cancer 41: 757–763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Logan WPD (1982) Cancer mortality by occupation and social class: 1851–1971.IARC Sci Publ 36Google Scholar
  25. Matanoski GM, Seltser R, Sartwell PE, Diamond EL, Elliott EA (1975) The current mortality rates of radiologists and other physician specialists: specific causes of death. Am J Epidemiol 101 (3): 199–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Milham S (1976) Occupational mortality in Washington State, 1950–1971. DHEW, CincinnatiGoogle Scholar
  27. Olin R, Vagero D, Ahlbom A (1985) Mortality experience of electrical engineers. Br J Ind Med 42: 211–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Pell S, O’Berg MT, Karrh BW (1978) Cancer epidemiologic surveillance in the DuPont Company. J Occup Med 20 (11): 725–740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Petersen GR, Milham S (1980) NIOSH research report: occupational mortality in the State of California 1959–1961. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati. [DHEW publication no. (NIOSH)80–104]Google Scholar
  30. Rushton L, Alderson MR (1981) An epidemiological survey of eight oil refineries in Britain. Br J Ind Med 38: 225–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Stellman SD, Garfinkel L (1984) Cancer mortality among woodworkers. Am J Ind Med 5: 343–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Teppo L, Pukkala E, Hakama M, Hakulinen T, Herva A, Saxen E (1980) Way of life and cancer incidence in Finland. Scand J Soc Med [Supp119]Google Scholar
  33. Thomas TL, Decoufle P (1979) Mortality among workers employed in the pharmaceutical industry: a preliminary investigation. J Occup Med 21 (9): 619–623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Thomas TL, Decoufle P, Moure-Eraso R (1980) Mortality among workers employed in petroleum refining and petrochemical plants. J Occup Med 22 (2): 97–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Vagero D, Olin R (1983) Incidence of cancer in the electronics industry: using the new Swedish Cancer Environment Registry as a screening instrument. Br J Ind Med 40: 188–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Vagero D, Persson G (1984) Risk, survival and trends of malignant melanoma among white and blue-collar workers in Sweden. Soc Sci Med 19: 475–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Vagero D, Ahlbom A, Olin R, Sahlsten S (1985) Cancer morbidity among workers in the telecommunications industry. Br J Ind Med 42: 191–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Waxweiler RJ, Alexander V, Leffingwell SS, Haring ML, Lloyd JW (1983) Mortality from brain tumor and other causes in a cohort of petrochemical workers. INCI 70: 75–81Google Scholar
  39. Williams RR, Stegens HL, Goldsmith JR (1977) Associations of cancer site and type with occupations and industry from the Third National Cancer Survey interview. JNCI 59 (4): 1147–1185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Wright WE, Peters JM, Mack TM (1983) Organic chemicals and malignant melanoma. Am J Ind Med 4 (4): 577–581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. F. Austin
    • 1
  • P. Reynolds
    • 1
  1. 1.Cancer Prevention SectionCalifornia State Department of Health ServicesEmeryvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations