Principles of Measurement of Anaesthetic Agent Concentrations in Closed-Circuit Systems

  • H.-D. Hattendorff
  • C. F. Wallroth


The measurement of concentrations of anaesthetic agent and nitrous oxide in the breathing circuit may be carried out at three sites in the system: measurement in the inspiratory limb allows at least control of the gas actually led to the patient, while measurement between Y-piece and patient or in the expiratory limb of the circuit will give important information on expiratory concentration values. Ideally, the end-expiratory value is measured.


Nitrous Oxide Anaesthetic Agent Breathing Circuit Inspiratory Limb Expiratory Limb 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • H.-D. Hattendorff
  • C. F. Wallroth

There are no affiliations available

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