Evolution of the Vacuum State in Supercritical Potentials

  • Walter Greiner
  • Berndt Müller
  • Johann Rafelski
Part of the Texts and Monographs in Physics book series (TMP)


Three types of experiments probing a supercritical external field can be imagined, in principle. First, experiments where a subcritical but strong field is made supercritical for a certain finite period of time; then those in which a subcritical external field is rendered supercritical and made to remain so forever; and, finally, experiments that are carried out completely in a supercritical field. The prototype of the first kind of experiments — and the only one presently feasible — is the sub-Coulomb barrier collision of very heavy ions, such as uranium on uranium, Chapts. 12, 13. The second type of experiment corresponds, for instance, to the creation of a stable supercritical nucleus, initially stripped of electrons, by a nuclear fusion process. A typical experiment of the third kind is the ionization of a (hypothetical) supercritical atom and the observation of the resulting spontaneous pair creation (γ absorption accompanied by positron line emission).


Uranium Refraction Dura Blin 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Re 80b.
    J. Reinhardt, B. Müller, W. Greiner: In Coherence and Correlation in Atomic Collisions, ed. by H. Kleinpoppen, J. F. Williams ( Plenum, New York 1980 ) p. 331Google Scholar
  2. Ki 80.
    J. Kirsch, B. Müller, W. Greiner: Z. Naturforsch. 35a, 579 (1980)ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Bi 75.
    I. Bialynicki-Birula, Z. Bialynicka-Birula: Quantum Electrodynamics ( Pergamon, Oxford 1975 )Google Scholar
  4. Re 81b.
    J. Reinhardt, B. Müller, W. Greiner: Phys. Rev. A24, 103 (1981)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Ra 74.
    J. Rafelski, B. Müller, W. Greiner: Nucl. Phys. B68, 585 (1974)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Schw 51.
    J. Schwinger: Phys. Rev. 82, 664 (1951)CrossRefMATHADSMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. Schw 73.
    J. Schwinger: Particles, Sources and Fields, Vol. 2, ( Addison-Wesley, Reading 1973 )Google Scholar
  8. It 80.
    C. Itzykson, J. B. Zuber: Quantum Field Theory ( McGraw-Hill, New York 1980 )Google Scholar
  9. Ma 77c.
    M. S. Marinov, V. S. Popov: Fortschr. Phys. 25, 373 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ha 81a.
    A. Hansen, F. Ravndal: Phys. Scr. 23, 1036 (1981)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter Greiner
    • 1
  • Berndt Müller
    • 1
  • Johann Rafelski
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Theoretische PhysikJohann-Wolfgang-Goethe UniversitätFrankfurt/MainFed. Rep. of Germany
  2. 2.Institute of Theoretical Physics and AstrophysicsUniversity of Cape TownRondeboschSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations