Bacterial Growth and Antibiotics in Animal Respirometry

  • G. J. Dalla Via

Abstract

The uncontrolled contribution of bacterial oxygen consumption in animal respirometry respresents a substantial problem and results in an ambiguous reading of the animal’s metabolic rate. This problem became especially important when the application of polarographic oxygen sensors (POS) made possible long-term measurements of the dynamics of an animal’s energy metabolism (which may be superimposed by bacterial growth). Bacterial growth is most rapid on free surfaces [42, 60] such as the inner walls of the animal chamber, but also in the stirring chamber of the POS, valves, connecting tubings, etc.

Keywords

Ozone Phytoplankton Respiration Vancomycin Tetracycline 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Alcaraz M (1974) Respiracicín en crustáceos: Influencia de la concentratión de oxígeno en el medio. Invest Pesq 38:397–411Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bell GR, Hoskins GE, Hodgkiss W (1971) Aspects of the characterization, identification, and ecology of the bacterial flora associated with the surface of stream-incubating Pacific Salmon (Oncorhynchus) eggs. J Fish Res Board Can 28:1511–1525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berland BR, Maestrini SY (1969) Study of bacteria associated with marine algae in culture. II. Action of antibiotic substances. Mar Biol 3:334–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Booth CE, Mangum CP (1978) Oxygen uptake and transport in the lamellibranch mollusc Modiolus demissus. Physiol Zool 51: 17–32Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boyd CM, Johnson MW (1963) Variation in the larval stages of a decapod crustacean, Pleuron codes planipes Stimpson (Galatheidae). Biol Bull 124: 141–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brown C, Russo DJ (1979) Ultraviolet light disinfection of shellfish batchery sea water. I. Elimination of five pathogenic bacteria. Aquaculture 17:17–23Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Capuzzo JM (1977) The effects of free chlorine and chloramine on growth and respiration rates of larval lobsters (Homarus americanus). Water Res 11: 1021 -1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chernin E (1959) Cultivation of the snail Australorbis glabratus under axenic conditions. Ann NY Acad Sci 77:237–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Childress JJ (1975) The respiratory rates of midwater crustaceans as a function of depth of occurrence and relation to the oxygen minimum layer of Southern California. Comp Biochem Physiol 50A: 787–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Colberg PJ, Lingg AJ (1978) Effect of ozonation on microbial fish pathogens, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and BOD in simulated reuse hatchery water. J Fish Res Board Can 35:1290–1296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cooke WB (1956) Colonization of artificial bare areas by microorganisms. Bot Rev 22:613–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D’Agostino A (1975) Antibiotics in culture of invertebrates. In: Smith WL, Chanley MH (eds) Culture of marine invertebrate animals. Plenum Press, New York London, pp 109–133Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dungworth DL, Cross CE, Gillespie JR, Plopper CG (1975) The effects of ozone on animals. In: Murphy JS, Orr JR (eds) Ozone chemistry and technology. Franklin Inst Press, Philadelphia, pp 29–54Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Duursma EK, Parsi P (1976) Persistence of total and combined chlorine in sea water. Neth J Sea Res 10:192–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fisher WS, Nelson RT (1977) Therapeutic treatment for epibiotic fouling on Dungeness crab {Cancer magister) larvae reared in the laboratory. J Fish Res Board Can 34:432–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fisher WS, Nelson RT (1978) Application of antibiotics in the cultivation of Dungeness crab, Cancer magister. J Fish Res Board Can 35:1343–1349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fulton C (1959) Re-examination of an inhibitor of regeneration in Tubularia. Biol Bull 116: 232–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Giese AC, Farmanfarmaian A, Hilden S, Doezema P (1966) Respiration during the reproductive cycle in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Biol Bull 130: 192–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gnaiger E (1980) Energetics of invertebrate anoxibiosis: Direct calorimetry in aquatic Oligochaetes. FEBS Lett 112(2):239–242; Pharmacological application of animal calorimetry. Thermochim Acta 49:75–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goldberg HS (1959) Antibiotics, their chemistry and nonmedical uses. Van Nostrand Co, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Green JD, Chapman MA (1977) Temperature effects on oxygen consumption by the copepod Boeckella dilatata. N Z J Mar Freshwater Res 11:375–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gyllenberg G (1973) Comparison of the Cartesian diver technique and the polarographic method, an open system, for measuring the respiratory rates in three marine copepodes. Commentat Biol 60:1–13Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hahn FE (1979) Antibiotics, vol V. Mechanism of action of antibacterial agents. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Harding GCH (1977) Surface area of the Euphansiid Thysanöessa raschii and its relation to body length, weight, and respiration. J Fish Res Board Can 34:225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hash JH (1972) Antibiotic mechanisms. Annu Rev Pharmacol 12:35–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Helwig H (1973) Antibiotika-Chemotherapeutika. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kempf SC, Dennis Willows AO (1977) Laboratory culture of the nudibranch Tritonia diomedea Bergh (Tritoniidae: Opisthobranchia) and some aspects of its behavioral development. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 30:261–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Latter PM (1977) Axenic cultivation of an enchytraeid worm, Cognettia sphagnetorum. Oecologia 31:251–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lorian V (1966) Antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents in dinical and laboratory practice. CC Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, USAGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lough RG, Gonor JJ (1973) A response-surface approach to the combined effects of temperature and salinity on the larval development of Adula californiensis (Pelecypoda: Mytilidae). I. Survival and growth of three and fifteen-day old larvae. Mar Biol 22:241–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Marshall KC (1972) Mechanism of adhesion of marine bacteria to surfaces. Gaitherburg, Maryland, USA, Proc 3rd Int Congr Mar Corrosion Fouling, October 1972, pp 625–632Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Marshall SM, Orr AP (1958) Some uses of antibiotics in physiological experiments in sea water. J Mar Res 17:341–346Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Meadows PS (1964) Experiments on substrate selection by Corophium species: Films and bacteria on sand particles. J Exp Biol 41: 499–511Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Middaugh DP, Crane AM, Couch JA (1977) Toxicity of chlorine to juvenile spot, Leiostomus xanthurus. Water Res 11:1089–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Moebus K (1972) Factors affecting survival of test bacteria in sea water: marine bacteria, test bacteria and solid surfaces. Helgol Wiss Meeresunters 23:271–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Morgan RP, Prince RD (1978) Chlorine effects on larval development of striped bass {Morone saxatüis) ,white perch (M. americana) and blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis). Trans Am Fish Soc 107(4):636–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Murphy JS, Orr JR (1975) Ozone chemistry and technolog: A review of the literature 1961 -1974. Franklin Inst Press, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nilson EH, Fisher WS, Shleser RA (1976) A new mycosis of larval lobster (Homarus america nus). J Invertebr Pathol 27:177–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Poole RL (1966) A description of laboratory-reared zoeae of Cancer magister Dana, and megalopae taken under natural conditions (Decapoda Brachyura). Crustaceana 11:83–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Quastel JH, Scholefield PG (1951) Biochemistry of nitrification in soil. Bacteriol Rev 15:1–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Reiner R (1977) Antibiotics. In: Korte F, Goto M (eds) Natural compounds. Part 2: Antibiotics, vitamins and hormones. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 1–68Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Relini G (1974) Colonization patterns of hard marine substrata. Mem Biol Mar Oceanogr 4 (4–5–6):201–261Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sechler GE, Gundersen K (1972) Role of surface chemical composition on the microbial contribution to primary films. Gaithersburg, Maryland, Proc 3rd Int Congr Mar Corrosion Fouling, 1972, pp 610–616Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Seegert GL, Brooks AS (1978) The effects of intermittent chlorination on Coho salmon ,Ale-wife, Spottail Shiner and Rainbow Smelt. Trans Am Fish Soc 107:346–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sheldon RW, Evelyn TPT, Parson TR (1967) On the occurence and formation of small particles in sea water. Limnol Oceanogr 12:367–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Spector WS (1957) Handbook of toxicology, vol II. Antibiotics. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia LondonGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Spencer CP (1952) On the use of antibiotics for isolating bacteria-free cultures of marine phytoplankton organisms. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 31:97–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Spotte S (1979) Fish and invertebrate culture. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Stickney AP (1964) Salinity, temperature, and food requirements of soft-shell clam larvae in laboratory culture. Ecology 45:283–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Stokinger HE (1965) Ozone Toxicology: A review of research and industrial experience, 1954–1964. Arch Environ Health 10:719–731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Swiss JJ, Johnson MG (1976) Energy dynamics of two benthic crustaceans in relation to diet. J Fish Res Board Can 33:2544–2550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tuker M (1959) Inhibitory control of regeneration in nemertean worms. J Morphol 105:569–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Walne PR (1958) The importance of bacteria in laboratory experiments on rearing the larvae of Ostrea edulis (L.). J Mar Biol Assoc UK 37:415–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Walter AM, Heilmeyer L (1969) Antibiotika-Fibel. Antibiotika und Chemotherapie. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wedemeyer GA, Nelson NC (1977) Survival of two bacterial fish pathogens (Aeromonas salmonicida and the enteric redmouth bacterium) in ozonated, chlorinated, and untreated waters. J Fish Res Board Can 34:429–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wedemeyer GA, Nelson NC, Yasutake WT (1979) Physiological and biochemical aspects of ozone toxicity to Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J Fish Res Board Can 36:605–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wickins JF (1972) Developments in the laboratory culture of the common prawn, Palaemon serratus Pennant. Fish Invest London Ser II 27(4):1–24Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Yetka JE, Wiebe WJ (1974) Ecological application of antibiotics as respiratory inhibitors of bacterial populations. Appl Microbiol 28:1033–1039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Zeiss FR (1963) Effects of population densities on zooplankton respiration rates. Limnol Oceanogr 8:110–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Zobell CE, Anderson DQu (1936) Observations on the multiplication of bacteria in different volumes of stored sea water and the influence of oxygen tension and solid surfaces. Biol Bull 71:324–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. J. Dalla Via
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Zoologie, Abteilung ZoophysiologieUniversität InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria

Personalised recommendations